Here at Keperling Preservation Services, we focus primarily on built history. But built history and places are relevant because of people. Examining architecture out of the human context lacks the same significance. People and their shared stories and history are the foundation upon which we build the house of preservation. We’re currently living through a pivotal moment in our shared history, and it’s necessary to address this as it is happening. Recent tragedies are shining a greater light on the legacy of racism and exclusion in our country, not to mention more exposure to targeted violence. It is necessary from a preservation standpoint to address the contributions of these typically-excluded, marginalized people to our nation. We also want to address how the field of preservation can continue to grow and diversify.


William C. Goodridge mural, York, PA. Image source: Anne Gray, Wikipedia’s Entry on William C. Goodridge

 

DANIELLE’S PERSONAL STORY:

I feel like the events of the past several weeks are creating change and elevating the systemic marginalization of groups of people to a higher level of consciousness in the whole of society.  Many of the uncomfortable events in history are collectively forgotten by both the oppressors and the oppressed for different reasons (shame, fear of retaliation, pain and discomfort).  I am in the process of reading Slavery in the North: Forgetting History and Recovering Memory by Marc Howard Ross. This is not so much a history book as an examination of the psychology of collective memory.  Ross outlines that collective memories are hard to maintain – people die, move away, history documents what fits into the narrative of the day – but physical ties to places help to organize memory and can serve as a memory prompt.  Preserving the places that are tied to uncomfortable history can help those stories remain in the collective memory.  As Ross notes in the book:

“More inclusive narratives, rituals, and public landscapes can powerfully communicate shared connections and a common stake in society.”

Being a bi-racial woman in the twenty-first century, I am grateful I was born in this time and place.  My history (enslavement of my mother’s family and my father’s family journeying West on the Oregon trail) combined tells the story of our country and helps me to feel that my ancestors helped to build this country.  Having history and historical places acknowledge the contributions of the marginalized and enslaved in (literally and figuratively) building this country, we can help to connect ourselves to the greater history of the country and the realization that all of our history (as messy as it is) tells our story.

There is a shift in the interpretation of historical sites to tell the entire history of the people that lived in these historic places, from the famous people to the enslaved (and sometimes the indigenous people that were removed from the land).  This shift allows for people to have their story told and validated in a way that is not done if it only perpetuates the feeling of disconnect from the greater society. 


Danielle Keperling and her parents, Chuck and Lois Groshong, on Danielle’s wedding day.

A few years ago I was dreaming of moving to Williamsburg and selling apples out of a basket (life was a little crazy and I thought this would be a low-stress life in which I could dress up every day for work).  When I was telling my mother, she looked at me and said, “You won’t sell apples out of a basket.  They’ll put you to work in the big house.”  Historically this would be true, but the thought had not occurred to me.

When I was in elementary school my Great Aunt Eunice (she was a private duty nurse) told me that when I am shopping, I need to make sure I don’t go back into the store with my bags and make sure I have my receipts with me.  I did not realize until I was an adult that this was in case the store employees accused me of stealing – I thought this advice was something that everyone learned.  When I hear stories of lessons told to young black men on how to interact with the police, I realize how many of the lessons we learn are based on the experiences of generations before us and how we have passed these survival skills forward.

 

WHAT CAN WE DO?

This is a hard question to answer. However, it’s necessary to try. Much of the inspiration for our suggested solutions below was drawn from The Inclusive Historian’s Handbook article on inclusivity in historic preservation, as well as other resources embedded throughout this post. If you feel moved to learn more about the contributions of all cultural and minority groups to our collective American history, or even feel compelled to contribute to efforts to support a more inclusive history, we’ve curated a few steps you can take:

 

What’s been done. To start, become aware of the current status of history and preservation. It’s generally agreed that two critical events – Ann Pamela Cunningham’s seminal initiative to restore and save Mt. Vernon, and the grassroots rallying following the destruction of New York City’s Penn Stationlit the fire for preservation in the United States. And, in 1966 With Heritage So Rich was published (the full digital version can be found here). It set the stage for the formal preservation processes we have in place today. It also acknowledged that more work needed to be done, and resulted in the formal enactment of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966. While this was essential, there is still room for improvement and inclusion.

Over the last few years, the National Trust for Historic Preservation has made concerted efforts to address these gaps. They’ve transitioned to forward-focused annual conferences, increased discussion of inclusive preservation and people-centric work, and have held a forum on preserving difficult histories.

 

Take part in placekeeping. It is necessary to consider these questions. Who decides what should be preserved? And, what determines whether something is worthy of preservation? Many have suggested that we focus on “placekeeping” instead of “placemaking” as a way to negotiate between citizens and developers. This means preserving and saving the culture that exists to make a place unique, rather than eradicating the current cultural heritage to “better it” with something new. The idea came about largely due to the push for adaptive reuse and revitalization around the country, which sadly often results in significant gentrification. We can support this placekeeping process by buying from local businesses. We can also learn about the unique histories of our local neighborhoods and communities. Another enjoyable way to support a place might involve attending cultural or heritage festivals. 

 

Visit and support. Simply visiting or donating to historic sites contributes to the cause inclusive history, particularly sites that focus on such history. Look for places and organizations that involve inclusive storytelling and value and share intangible heritage. In our region alone there are several places that fit the bill, but here is a list of just a few:

 

Read/educate yourself. It’s vital that we remember our past. We can educate ourselves by reading about local and national stories of underrepresented groups and forgotten events.

 

Share/be an activist. You can be an activist simply by sharing your knowledge with others. You can use your basic preservationist skill-set and take it a step further by focusing on inclusivity. You can use many of the above-embedded articles and resources from the National Trust for Historic Preservation as inspiration.

 

Engage youth. We have no hope of moving this process forward unless we include today’s youth. Involving a young person in your life in the quest to learn about and share an inclusive history is essential. Young folks can inherit our intangible heritage through stories and experiences, and they can also learn important skill-sets if they decide to become professionally involved in the field. The National Trust for Historic Preservation also shares ways to include youth

 

Ultimately we agree with the statement of solidarity recently released by Lancaster History. The unrest and protests are logical consequences of systemic injustice. Although we support non-violent methods of action, we also feel it is imperative to remember why these sometimes violent methods are resorted to by people. We hope that you can use this knowledge and become a part of the necessary solution to stand in solidarity with those who need it most. You can start by using some of the suggestions provided in this post.

 

Further resources and steps:

 

 

 

 

A façade. What is it? Most of us know that its most basic definition is “face.” In the case of architecture, this refers to the exterior side of the building, usually the front. Façades on buildings are often the first defining features we see. As times change, so do architectural design styles, and this is reflected in façades on old and new buildings. Façades can provide varying amounts of information about the building’s past and current functioning, or they can simply be really nice to look at. Regardless, they are often the one aspect of architecture that almost anyone has access to simply by being in front of us. Read on to learn why historical façades are more than aesthetics.


Exterior shot of the Kosciuszko House, from our archives.

 

IMPORTANCE OF FACADES

You may be thinking to yourself: Why is a façade important? Isn’t it just for aesthetic-purposes? The answer is: Yes, it is partially focused on aesthetics. And one person’s visually-pleasing cup-of-tea is not someone else’s, so not every façade is attractive to every eye. However, a façade serves many more purposes and provides many other benefits than simply fulfilling an aesthetic goal.

  • Historical Streetscape and Cultural Landscape. The front façade of your home is an important focal point not only for curb appeal, but for the entire community. The rhythm of the entire streetscape is set by the street-facing façade. A well-preserved façade helps to maintain the historic fabric and cultural landscape of the building and the area around it, further contributing to the identity of its environment and community. The National Trust for Historic Preservation and Mainstreet America provide further information on the impetus to save and preserve façades in keeping with these community and cultural concepts.

 

  • Visual Historical Records. Even things that were considered merely decorative at the time of their construction may currently serve a function as a visual replacement for a historic plaque, by virtue of their historically-defining characteristics. Essentially, period-appropriate façades that are preserved are visual clues to the time period of the building, enabling us to visually “read” some aspects of a building’s history.  We can discern the time period of the building based on the style, as well as time periods of later additions. Style also indicates the socioeconomic status of the builder/original owner.

 

  • Form and Function. A preserved or period-appropriate façade also may include functional aspects. Although the nature of design has clearly evolved, we know that form and function often go hand-in-hand in older buildings and this often rings true even on a façade. The ingenious marriage of form and function in their designs often lend to the “charm” that modern people associate with them, and that is typically missing from newer buildings. For instance, historical shutters most-definitely served a function as much as they added to the decoration of a home. Their functions included protecting occupants from prying eyes or intrusion,  weather protection, as well as UV protection of items inside the home, including wooden furniture. They might also provide a breeze to come through without having the window gaping open, and in some cases were substitutes for glass windows. Porches also served dual functions, providing a grand decorative entrance to the home, while also allowing for outdoor socialization (as well as alternative sleeping accommodations in the case of sleeping porches). Other façade design elements can also be functional in many ways. 

 

ISSUES AND CONTROVERSIES

Contractors, building owners, city planning committees, and the public do not always agree on how façades or their buildings should be built, preserved, or maintained, leading to a variety of outcomes and controversies.

  • Façade lost or destroyed. In some cases, an old home or building’s façade is modified, rendering it unrecognizable from its original configuration, and important historical elements are forgotten or lost. Some of the aspects most-threatened by these facelifts include original windows and doors, due to homeowners’ concerns about energy efficiency, cost, and maintenance, and the highly-advertised “maintenance-free” trap

 

  • Façade preserved but interior lost or destroyed. In other cases and as is more common, the façade is preserved while the interior is not. The Secretary of the Interiors’ guidelines for Historic Preservation focuses on the preservation of exterior features (the façade) by allowing historic commissions/HARB districts to regulate changes to buildings within the designated districts to what is visible from the public street (“streetscape” is the term that is used).  The interior is not regulated even in historic districts – leading to gutting of interiors while the exteriors are preserved.  I think this is because the historic preservation policy is based off of community preservation (“rhythms and patterns” is the term that is used) balanced with property owners’ rights – which is still a tension in regulated neighborhoods.  Easements are the only preservation tool that can preserve the interior (if stipulated in the agreement). We will discuss more of this in an upcoming blog post on interiors.

 

  • Façadism. This term refers to an even more extreme example than the one above. Simply put, façadism is when the façade is preserved but the building behind is completely lost or destroyed, and replaced by a completely new building. This is often seen in the case of adaptive reuse. This obviously is a controversial topic in the field of preservation, and some believe it should not be associated with true historic preservation. Locally here in Lancaster, the preservation victory of preserving the Watt and Shand Department Store façade in downtown Lancaster for the Marriott Hotel and Convention Center has been controversial, but I’d rather see the façade preserved than lost.

 

  • Façade and interior restored or preserved. In some cases, façades and interiors are beautifully restored and saved. See this post on an example of one of our complete exterior and interior restorations from several years ago. Another unique local example is also part of the Marriott complex. The Montgomery house’s exterior was preserved as the convention center was built around and incorporated the home into it, and the interior of the house was renovated to meet modern needs, making this a more thorough example of restoration incorporated into adaptive reuse. 

 

FAÇADE PRESERVATION TIPS

There are several things you can do to preserve or restore your historical façade, and we’ve included a breakdown of each of the most common elements of your home’s façade, as well as comprehensive information on overall maintenance and aesthetic/architectural style elements.

  • Entrances (porches and doors). The entrance to a home is one of the most attention-grabbing aspects of a façade. Visit our previous post on porches and doors for more information on restoring or updating your entrance. You can also visit our porch archives.

 

  • Windows and Shutters. Windows are another key component of a façade, and we’ve discussed many times the importance of maintenance or restoration of old windows vs. falling for the “maintenance-free” new window trap that is heavily touted by modern manufacturing companies and many contractors. Visit the National Park Service’s (NPS) site on windows, and NPS’s National Center for Preservation Technology and Training’s website on windows, and our window archives for more information on approaching your historical windows.

 

  • Siding and Paint. Siding can be just as vulnerable as windows are to replacement with inappropriate modern materials. Paint poses its own challenges in terms of safety (lead in old paint) but also benefits of historically-accurate (minus the lead) paints and paint colors. Visit NPS’s briefs on exterior paint issues and substitute materials, as well as our articles on siding and painting your historical home

 

  • Roofs and Chimneys. Roofs and chimneys can be essential elements of a home’s design and are distinctively different across architectural styles. Visit the NPS’s preservation briefs on roofing and mortar, as well as The Trust for Architectural Easement’s piece on historic masonry chimneys. The Wisconsin Historical Society also has a piece on Preserving Original Roof Features of your Historic Building

 

  • Gutters. Although these utilitarian features are often overlooked when one thinks of more common aesthetic and functional features of a building’s façade, they are no less essential. The Trust for Architectural Easements discusses preservation of gutters and downspouts, and we’ve discussed gutters in our archives

 

  • Additions. Additions to homes, especially ones visible from the front of the home, are another important thing to consider when attempting to preserve most historical aspects of a façade. Visit NPS’s brief on exterior additions and Sheldon Richard Kostelecky’s article regarding sympathetic additions. 

 

  • Architectural character. Character is a major aspect of streetscapes and the cultural landscape, as well as period-appropriate architectural design style. Visit NPS’s brief on architectural character and our archives on architectural design.  

 

  • Overall maintenance. Visit our maintenance archives, including many recent and up-to-date articles on maintaining your home’s exterior. 

IN SUMMARY:

There’s more to a façade than meets the eye. If you would like help preserving or restoring your home’s  façade beyond the resources presented throughout this article, feel free to contact us to discuss your options.