LABOR DAY although it was yesterday, we feel it’s timely to discuss it. Now known as the unofficial end of Summer, a time for store sales, or an extra long weekend for some. But the history and meaning behind the day represent the struggles of laborers in the American workforce, and collective issues that are just as relevant today as they were over a hundred years ago. It’s important that we preserve the history of Labor Day and continue to support our laborers. Read on for a brief overview of national and Pennsylvania labor history, and links to Pennsylvania labor history points of interest.

Illustration from Tribute to Labor Day newspaper article – 1901 edition of the Desert Evening News, Great Salt Lake City, Utah. Image Source: Library of Congress.

 

The History Behind Labor Day

The U.S. Department of Labor’s fairly neutral overview of Labor Day reports that the holiday is the result of years of dedicated efforts by members of the Labor Movement to establish fair wages and work hours. The first official Labor Day celebration (which was actually a demonstration) occurred September 5, 1882 by the Central Labor Union in New York City, including a parade followed by a festival. This had a cascade effect. Subsequently, grass roots efforts by laborers and small unions led to initial ordinances being put in place in various municipalities by the mid-1880s. The first state law declaring Labor Day a legal holiday was passed in Oregon in 1887, and several other states followed suit. June 28, 1894, then-President Grover Cleveland officially signed the act into law making the first Monday of September a legal national holiday. 

“According to legend, Peter McGuire stood before the New York Central Labor Union on May 12, 1882, to suggest the idea of setting aside one day a year to honor labor. McGuire believed that Labor Day should ‘be celebrated by a street parade which would publicly show the strength and esprit de corps of the trade and labor organizations.’” 

U.S. Department of Labor

 

What the report by the U.S. Department of Labor fails to mention is the significant unrest, violence, and suffering that occurred for laborers before this holiday was created. Laborers endured 12-hour or more workdays, worked 7-days a week, had low wages, no benefits, and unsafe working conditions. Child labor was also prolific. Most sources claim that the official legalization of this holiday was a political move made to appease labor unrest. The PBS New Desk asserted that the catalyst for this political move was the Pullman Strike of 1894. The workers protested the simultaneous drop in wages and maintenance of rents following a decline in sleeping car orders (due to nationwide economic depression). The domino effect of this initial rebellion included nationwide boycotts of trains carrying Pullman cars, by railroad workers. Some of these protesters pillaged and burned the cars. Railroad executives were concerned and mail trains were delayed. President Cleveland’s initial response of declaring the strike a Federal crime and deploying troops to break it culminated in heightened violence and several deaths. The strike was declared ended via injunction July 20, 1894, several strike leaders were arrested, unions were disbanded, and striking Pullman employees were rehired on the condition that they signed a pledge not to unionize again.

Although it appears that the powers that be were ultimately victorious at the expense of the common working man, the strike’s handling was viewed poorly by much of the public. Some say to appease the public and garner political favor (although this source indicates Cleveland had little to gain by doing so), President Grover Cleveland quickly signed the act into law a few days after the strike’s declared end.

 

Pennsylvania’s Involvement in the Labor Movement

The Explore PA History website provides a thorough overview of Pennsylvania’s particular involvement in the labor movement. The Pennsylvania Labor History Society also includes a detailed timeline of Labor History in Pennsylvania. This history is summarized subsequently. Philadelphia printers staged the U.S.’s first strike for higher wages in 1786. Some of the most notable Pennsylvania industries in the 19th century – mining, steel, and railroads – involved very low wages, extremely long hours, and limited benefits so laborers in these industries were well-known for their unions and strikes. The Depression of the 1930s also caused hardship for Pennsylvania workers, especially in the steel industry, leading to an influx of union members. The Cold War period’s increased international competition and the subsequent deindustrialization of the United States caused significant job loss and lower standards of living for many Pennsylvania workers.

Tangible evidence of Pennsylvania’s industrial and trade contributions are existent today in their original locations (some still in-use) and through museums. The Pennsylvania Labor History Society includes links to various sites, The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission includes a link to the industrial heritage trail, with museums of industry (here), and The State Museum of Pennsylvania includes several items paying homage to Pennsylvania industry (many of which can be viewed virtually, here, here, ). 

 

IN SUMMARY:

Work has shifted significantly in the U.S. over the past two hundred years from the industrial and skilled-trades to the white-collar jobs that we see today (related as well to the skilled labor shortage we’ve outlined before). Union memberships have significantly declined, and labor concerns have shifted to issues of health care, equitable wages, retirement, etc. Essentially, the players have changed but the game is essentially the same. It is incumbent upon us as a society not to forget the meaning behind Labor Day, to visit and read about historical industrial and labor movement sites and objects, to continue to fight for worker’s rights, and to support our local laborers as much as we can. In this way, we preserve our history as well as our society.

 

SHARE WITH US!

DO YOU OR A FAMILY MEMBER HAVE A PERSONAL STORY RELATED TO THE LABOR MOVEMENT? OR, DO YOU KNOW OF ANY HISTORICAL SITES OR OBJECTS RELATED TO THE LABOR MOVEMENT THAT YOU’D LIKE TO MENTION? 

FEEL FREE TO SHARE BELOW!

 

 

Jack and Jessica Meyer – father-daughter owners of  White Chimneys in Gap (Lancaster County), PA – joined the Practical Preservation Podcast to discuss their property’s history and their business. We covered multiple topics, including:

  • The Meyers’ realization of their historic preservation values through the purchase and renovation of White Chimneys over the past 15 years
  • The 300 years of history – including the estate’s direct connection to our founding fathers and famous historic figures such as the Marquis de Lafayette – of White Chimneys
  • Restoration and renovation experiences and tips from the homeowners’ perspective, including historic discoveries made along the way
  • Services utilized for restoration and ongoing maintenance, including details on the air purification system (particularly in light of COVID-19) 
  • How curious visitors planted the seed for their wedding venue and other business
  • Unique options and services offered to brides and grooms – including co-creating a signature cocktail with ingredients from the estate’s own gardens
  • Their business focus on sustainability, to support the history and future of the estate (which is on the National Register of Historic Places and under a historic preservation easement)
  • Challenges of owning a historic home and business, including that maintenance work is never done!

 

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Listen to the end of the podcast to learn more about the HVAC businessShoemaker Heating and Cooling – responsible for the custom ductwork and air filtration system installed at White Chimneys. Mr. Shoemaker can be reached via the link above, at 610-314-7278, or at [email protected]

If considering a wedding or other service at White Chimneys during these uncertain times, listen to their description of adjustments in the podcast or visit their COVID discussion here.

Adam Zurn, founder of Uncharted Lancaster, joined the Practical Preservation Podcast to discuss his website’s dual function as an educational and adventure tool. We covered multiple topics, including:

  • How his background as a child of the 1980s influenced his curious, adventurous side, and the inspiration for Uncharted Lancaster 
  • How Uncharted Lancaster includes “adventures” with directions to locations as well as ciphers and other clues to unlock hidden finds and other treasures in order to encourage interest in local natural and historical resources
  • Notable adventures, like “armchair” adventures – inaccessible to the public but available virtually and vicariously through Adam – including the Pequehanna Inn
  • Uncharted Lancaster’s broad-reach and universal appeal; activities are appropriate for anyone seeking an active way to learn more about local history, particularly families with children and young adolescents
  • Uncharted Lancaster’s recent partnership with Lancaster Conservancy on some new adventures, focusing on Water Week
  • Adam’s recommended adventures for families with younger children (Pequea Trolley Trail) and older children (Enola Low-Grade Adventure)
  • The challenge of exposing more people to these little-known places and histories, while some argue that it puts the peace, preservation, and cleanliness of these locations at risk

 

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All of Uncharted Lancaster’s adventures are available and free of charge. However, you can help support Adam’s efforts to continue creating new adventures by purchasing items through his store, or sponsoring his efforts, with the money going back into the project.

Jeffrey Marshall, the president of Heritage Conservancy in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, joined the Practical Preservation Podcast to discuss the organization’s mission and work conserving and preserving a combination of natural and cultural heritage resources in Southeastern Pennsylvania. We covered multiple topics, including:

  • Jeffrey’s background combining his lifelong loves of nature, history, and architecture with his graduate studies
  • Heritage Conservancy’s function as a non-profit organization in the Southeastern PA region, focused on dual aspects of community and cultural heritage: conservation of open spaces and natural resources and preservation of historic buildings
  • Educational outreach by Heritage Conservancy, including Jeffrey’s “Sherlock Homes” old house detective character, aiding homeowners in “investigations” of their old homes’ histories via consultation or research
  • The conservancy’s work assisting owners of old homes and buildings with applying for National Register status and obtaining conservation land easements or historic preservation easements
  • Challenges and trends in these fields, including decreased interest in conservation and preservation of local cultural heritage and greater numbers of new residents without local roots, resulting in an increased need to teach more community members why local cultural heritage is important to everyone

 

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Follow their News & Events webpage or follow them on Facebook to find out about events and new projects!

The conservancy and Jeffrey believe that we are all custodians and caretakers of our collective and local cultural heritage, and it’s important for individuals to do what they can – even if you’re not in the Southeastern PA region, contact them for suggestions on taking action in your own community.

Here at Keperling Preservation Services, we focus primarily on built history. But built history and places are relevant because of people. Examining architecture out of the human context lacks the same significance. People and their shared stories and history are the foundation upon which we build the house of preservation. We’re currently living through a pivotal moment in our shared history, and it’s necessary to address this as it is happening. Recent tragedies are shining a greater light on the legacy of racism and exclusion in our country, not to mention more exposure to targeted violence. It is necessary from a preservation standpoint to address the contributions of these typically-excluded, marginalized people to our nation. We also want to address how the field of preservation can continue to grow and diversify.


William C. Goodridge mural, York, PA. Image source: Anne Gray, Wikipedia’s Entry on William C. Goodridge

 

DANIELLE’S PERSONAL STORY:

I feel like the events of the past several weeks are creating change and elevating the systemic marginalization of groups of people to a higher level of consciousness in the whole of society.  Many of the uncomfortable events in history are collectively forgotten by both the oppressors and the oppressed for different reasons (shame, fear of retaliation, pain and discomfort).  I am in the process of reading Slavery in the North: Forgetting History and Recovering Memory by Marc Howard Ross. This is not so much a history book as an examination of the psychology of collective memory.  Ross outlines that collective memories are hard to maintain – people die, move away, history documents what fits into the narrative of the day – but physical ties to places help to organize memory and can serve as a memory prompt.  Preserving the places that are tied to uncomfortable history can help those stories remain in the collective memory.  As Ross notes in the book:

“More inclusive narratives, rituals, and public landscapes can powerfully communicate shared connections and a common stake in society.”

Being a bi-racial woman in the twenty-first century, I am grateful I was born in this time and place.  My history (enslavement of my mother’s family and my father’s family journeying West on the Oregon trail) combined tells the story of our country and helps me to feel that my ancestors helped to build this country.  Having history and historical places acknowledge the contributions of the marginalized and enslaved in (literally and figuratively) building this country, we can help to connect ourselves to the greater history of the country and the realization that all of our history (as messy as it is) tells our story.

There is a shift in the interpretation of historical sites to tell the entire history of the people that lived in these historic places, from the famous people to the enslaved (and sometimes the indigenous people that were removed from the land).  This shift allows for people to have their story told and validated in a way that is not done if it only perpetuates the feeling of disconnect from the greater society. 


Danielle Keperling and her parents, Chuck and Lois Groshong, on Danielle’s wedding day.

A few years ago I was dreaming of moving to Williamsburg and selling apples out of a basket (life was a little crazy and I thought this would be a low-stress life in which I could dress up every day for work).  When I was telling my mother, she looked at me and said, “You won’t sell apples out of a basket.  They’ll put you to work in the big house.”  Historically this would be true, but the thought had not occurred to me.

When I was in elementary school my Great Aunt Eunice (she was a private duty nurse) told me that when I am shopping, I need to make sure I don’t go back into the store with my bags and make sure I have my receipts with me.  I did not realize until I was an adult that this was in case the store employees accused me of stealing – I thought this advice was something that everyone learned.  When I hear stories of lessons told to young black men on how to interact with the police, I realize how many of the lessons we learn are based on the experiences of generations before us and how we have passed these survival skills forward.

 

WHAT CAN WE DO?

This is a hard question to answer. However, it’s necessary to try. Much of the inspiration for our suggested solutions below was drawn from The Inclusive Historian’s Handbook article on inclusivity in historic preservation, as well as other resources embedded throughout this post. If you feel moved to learn more about the contributions of all cultural and minority groups to our collective American history, or even feel compelled to contribute to efforts to support a more inclusive history, we’ve curated a few steps you can take:

 

What’s been done. To start, become aware of the current status of history and preservation. It’s generally agreed that two critical events – Ann Pamela Cunningham’s seminal initiative to restore and save Mt. Vernon, and the grassroots rallying following the destruction of New York City’s Penn Stationlit the fire for preservation in the United States. And, in 1966 With Heritage So Rich was published (the full digital version can be found here). It set the stage for the formal preservation processes we have in place today. It also acknowledged that more work needed to be done, and resulted in the formal enactment of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966. While this was essential, there is still room for improvement and inclusion.

Over the last few years, the National Trust for Historic Preservation has made concerted efforts to address these gaps. They’ve transitioned to forward-focused annual conferences, increased discussion of inclusive preservation and people-centric work, and have held a forum on preserving difficult histories.

 

Take part in placekeeping. It is necessary to consider these questions. Who decides what should be preserved? And, what determines whether something is worthy of preservation? Many have suggested that we focus on “placekeeping” instead of “placemaking” as a way to negotiate between citizens and developers. This means preserving and saving the culture that exists to make a place unique, rather than eradicating the current cultural heritage to “better it” with something new. The idea came about largely due to the push for adaptive reuse and revitalization around the country, which sadly often results in significant gentrification. We can support this placekeeping process by buying from local businesses. We can also learn about the unique histories of our local neighborhoods and communities. Another enjoyable way to support a place might involve attending cultural or heritage festivals. 

 

Visit and support. Simply visiting or donating to historic sites contributes to the cause inclusive history, particularly sites that focus on such history. Look for places and organizations that involve inclusive storytelling and value and share intangible heritage. In our region alone there are several places that fit the bill, but here is a list of just a few:

 

Read/educate yourself. It’s vital that we remember our past. We can educate ourselves by reading about local and national stories of underrepresented groups and forgotten events.

 

Share/be an activist. You can be an activist simply by sharing your knowledge with others. You can use your basic preservationist skill-set and take it a step further by focusing on inclusivity. You can use many of the above-embedded articles and resources from the National Trust for Historic Preservation as inspiration.

 

Engage youth. We have no hope of moving this process forward unless we include today’s youth. Involving a young person in your life in the quest to learn about and share an inclusive history is essential. Young folks can inherit our intangible heritage through stories and experiences, and they can also learn important skill-sets if they decide to become professionally involved in the field. The National Trust for Historic Preservation also shares ways to include youth

 

Ultimately we agree with the statement of solidarity recently released by Lancaster History. The unrest and protests are logical consequences of systemic injustice. Although we support non-violent methods of action, we also feel it is imperative to remember why these sometimes violent methods are resorted to by people. We hope that you can use this knowledge and become a part of the necessary solution to stand in solidarity with those who need it most. You can start by using some of the suggestions provided in this post.

 

Further resources and steps:

 

 

 

 

A façade. What is it? Most of us know that its most basic definition is “face.” In the case of architecture, this refers to the exterior side of the building, usually the front. Façades on buildings are often the first defining features we see. As times change, so do architectural design styles, and this is reflected in façades on old and new buildings. Façades can provide varying amounts of information about the building’s past and current functioning, or they can simply be really nice to look at. Regardless, they are often the one aspect of architecture that almost anyone has access to simply by being in front of us. Read on to learn why historical façades are more than aesthetics.


Exterior shot of the Kosciuszko House, from our archives.

 

IMPORTANCE OF FACADES

You may be thinking to yourself: Why is a façade important? Isn’t it just for aesthetic-purposes? The answer is: Yes, it is partially focused on aesthetics. And one person’s visually-pleasing cup-of-tea is not someone else’s, so not every façade is attractive to every eye. However, a façade serves many more purposes and provides many other benefits than simply fulfilling an aesthetic goal.

  • Historical Streetscape and Cultural Landscape. The front façade of your home is an important focal point not only for curb appeal, but for the entire community. The rhythm of the entire streetscape is set by the street-facing façade. A well-preserved façade helps to maintain the historic fabric and cultural landscape of the building and the area around it, further contributing to the identity of its environment and community. The National Trust for Historic Preservation and Mainstreet America provide further information on the impetus to save and preserve façades in keeping with these community and cultural concepts.

 

  • Visual Historical Records. Even things that were considered merely decorative at the time of their construction may currently serve a function as a visual replacement for a historic plaque, by virtue of their historically-defining characteristics. Essentially, period-appropriate façades that are preserved are visual clues to the time period of the building, enabling us to visually “read” some aspects of a building’s history.  We can discern the time period of the building based on the style, as well as time periods of later additions. Style also indicates the socioeconomic status of the builder/original owner.

 

  • Form and Function. A preserved or period-appropriate façade also may include functional aspects. Although the nature of design has clearly evolved, we know that form and function often go hand-in-hand in older buildings and this often rings true even on a façade. The ingenious marriage of form and function in their designs often lend to the “charm” that modern people associate with them, and that is typically missing from newer buildings. For instance, historical shutters most-definitely served a function as much as they added to the decoration of a home. Their functions included protecting occupants from prying eyes or intrusion,  weather protection, as well as UV protection of items inside the home, including wooden furniture. They might also provide a breeze to come through without having the window gaping open, and in some cases were substitutes for glass windows. Porches also served dual functions, providing a grand decorative entrance to the home, while also allowing for outdoor socialization (as well as alternative sleeping accommodations in the case of sleeping porches). Other façade design elements can also be functional in many ways. 

 

ISSUES AND CONTROVERSIES

Contractors, building owners, city planning committees, and the public do not always agree on how façades or their buildings should be built, preserved, or maintained, leading to a variety of outcomes and controversies.

  • Façade lost or destroyed. In some cases, an old home or building’s façade is modified, rendering it unrecognizable from its original configuration, and important historical elements are forgotten or lost. Some of the aspects most-threatened by these facelifts include original windows and doors, due to homeowners’ concerns about energy efficiency, cost, and maintenance, and the highly-advertised “maintenance-free” trap

 

  • Façade preserved but interior lost or destroyed. In other cases and as is more common, the façade is preserved while the interior is not. The Secretary of the Interiors’ guidelines for Historic Preservation focuses on the preservation of exterior features (the façade) by allowing historic commissions/HARB districts to regulate changes to buildings within the designated districts to what is visible from the public street (“streetscape” is the term that is used).  The interior is not regulated even in historic districts – leading to gutting of interiors while the exteriors are preserved.  I think this is because the historic preservation policy is based off of community preservation (“rhythms and patterns” is the term that is used) balanced with property owners’ rights – which is still a tension in regulated neighborhoods.  Easements are the only preservation tool that can preserve the interior (if stipulated in the agreement). We will discuss more of this in an upcoming blog post on interiors.

 

  • Façadism. This term refers to an even more extreme example than the one above. Simply put, façadism is when the façade is preserved but the building behind is completely lost or destroyed, and replaced by a completely new building. This is often seen in the case of adaptive reuse. This obviously is a controversial topic in the field of preservation, and some believe it should not be associated with true historic preservation. Locally here in Lancaster, the preservation victory of preserving the Watt and Shand Department Store façade in downtown Lancaster for the Marriott Hotel and Convention Center has been controversial, but I’d rather see the façade preserved than lost.

 

  • Façade and interior restored or preserved. In some cases, façades and interiors are beautifully restored and saved. See this post on an example of one of our complete exterior and interior restorations from several years ago. Another unique local example is also part of the Marriott complex. The Montgomery house’s exterior was preserved as the convention center was built around and incorporated the home into it, and the interior of the house was renovated to meet modern needs, making this a more thorough example of restoration incorporated into adaptive reuse. 

 

FAÇADE PRESERVATION TIPS

There are several things you can do to preserve or restore your historical façade, and we’ve included a breakdown of each of the most common elements of your home’s façade, as well as comprehensive information on overall maintenance and aesthetic/architectural style elements.

  • Entrances (porches and doors). The entrance to a home is one of the most attention-grabbing aspects of a façade. Visit our previous post on porches and doors for more information on restoring or updating your entrance. You can also visit our porch archives.

 

  • Windows and Shutters. Windows are another key component of a façade, and we’ve discussed many times the importance of maintenance or restoration of old windows vs. falling for the “maintenance-free” new window trap that is heavily touted by modern manufacturing companies and many contractors. Visit the National Park Service’s (NPS) site on windows, and NPS’s National Center for Preservation Technology and Training’s website on windows, and our window archives for more information on approaching your historical windows.

 

  • Siding and Paint. Siding can be just as vulnerable as windows are to replacement with inappropriate modern materials. Paint poses its own challenges in terms of safety (lead in old paint) but also benefits of historically-accurate (minus the lead) paints and paint colors. Visit NPS’s briefs on exterior paint issues and substitute materials, as well as our articles on siding and painting your historical home

 

  • Roofs and Chimneys. Roofs and chimneys can be essential elements of a home’s design and are distinctively different across architectural styles. Visit the NPS’s preservation briefs on roofing and mortar, as well as The Trust for Architectural Easement’s piece on historic masonry chimneys. The Wisconsin Historical Society also has a piece on Preserving Original Roof Features of your Historic Building

 

  • Gutters. Although these utilitarian features are often overlooked when one thinks of more common aesthetic and functional features of a building’s façade, they are no less essential. The Trust for Architectural Easements discusses preservation of gutters and downspouts, and we’ve discussed gutters in our archives

 

  • Additions. Additions to homes, especially ones visible from the front of the home, are another important thing to consider when attempting to preserve most historical aspects of a façade. Visit NPS’s brief on exterior additions and Sheldon Richard Kostelecky’s article regarding sympathetic additions. 

 

  • Architectural character. Character is a major aspect of streetscapes and the cultural landscape, as well as period-appropriate architectural design style. Visit NPS’s brief on architectural character and our archives on architectural design.  

 

  • Overall maintenance. Visit our maintenance archives, including many recent and up-to-date articles on maintaining your home’s exterior. 

IN SUMMARY:

There’s more to a façade than meets the eye. If you would like help preserving or restoring your home’s  façade beyond the resources presented throughout this article, feel free to contact us to discuss your options.