Most of you already know we are passionate about historic preservation here at Keperling Preservation Services. And it is our goal to share that passion with others not only by physically preserving the built environment, but also by providing educational materials via blog posts, “coffee break” videos, email newsletters, and podcasts

 

To our surprise and delight, we were recently featured on a list of “11 Great Podcasts for Historic Preservation Fans” posted by Nicholas Som of the National Trust for Historic Preservation. We sincerely appreciate this “shout out” and hope that it encourages people to take the time to not only listen to our podcasts, but the other great podcasts featured as well. All of these podcasts provide access to a wide-variety of historic preservation information – we’ve been known to discuss anything from preserving unique local barns to paranormal encounters – and there’s a little something for everyone.

One of the most rewarding things about it is getting to connect with people in other niches of preservation who are just as passionate as we are. We hope these connections can connect our audience, too.

We’d like to thank you, for tuning in. 

“The past is not the property of historians; it is a public possession. It belongs to anyone who is aware of it, and it grows by being shared. It sustains the whole society, which always needs the identity that only the past can give.” – William J. Murtagh

You might have guessed by now, but we’re passionate about the preservation of our built history.

Old buildings aren’t just interesting to look at, they serve as the foundation of our culture – time capsules from the past that are just as worthwhile, curious, and interesting as the people who lived, consorted, governed, gathered, and otherwise inhabited those buildings.

Second only to our passion for those grand old buildings that grace our streets is our passion for sharing what we know about preserving the contributions their architecture makes to our sense of place.  As with many things in life, there’s a lot of misinformation out there and wading through the mud and muck can sometimes be overwhelming.

So we do it for you.

It’s our nature to stay informed about all kinds of things preservation related, and we’re more than happy to share.  Our Resource Center is full of educational (and sometimes quirky and entertaining) content to help you learn more about what preservation is (and what it isn’t), how it happens, who’s doing it and where, what techniques artisan craftsman use in the traditional trades, the guidelines for preserving a historic building, how to’s for those who like to tinker, and so much more.

Knowledge is Power, as they so often say.

The dissemination of information is vital to a healthy and thriving culture.  And it’s just as important for healthy and thriving historic buildings.  We believe that the more you know, the more you can do, and as far as we’re concerned there’s no such thing as too many people “doing” historical preservation – the more the better.

Please be sure to stop back often, we’re always adding more information.

KITCHENS – today, these rooms are so essential to what most people see in a desirable home, that they can be one of the main determinants of whether or not to buy a particular house. These rooms generally serve not only as showplaces, but also as a central socializing spot. However, this was not always the case. For most of history, kitchens were plain, utilitarian, and the domain of servants or homemakers, not something to be shown off to guests, or for the family to spend much time in. Similar to bathrooms, kitchens have evolved tremendously over time, particularly the last 200 years. Awareness of this evolution can help you with your historic home’s kitchen.

Kitchen work as trade and occupation – 1874 lithograph by Louis Prang. Image Source:  Library of Congress

 

Kitchens: History and Evolution

Kitchens have existed in some form since ancient times. Early complex societies utilized open fire pits or ovens made of natural materials such as clay or brick, and these usually were located in open spaces to allow smoke to escape. Most people had kitchen prep and storage space in communal spaces, while wealthier abodes had separate spaces just for those needs, and they also sometimes had enclosed kitchens with chimneys to release smoke. (Source). 

Ancient kitchens and cooking spaces were considered work spaces as opposed to entertaining spaces (Source).

Medieval cooking areas showed little change from their predecessors, and in many cases were even less sophisticated. They also used open pits or spaces in buildings where fires could be used to cook food. Wealthier families had separate rooms for food prep and storage as well as cooking. The later stages of this period included more fireplaces with chimneys to diffuse smoke out of dwellings, and increased use of pots and pans. These innovations increased the comfort in the home due to decreased smoke and smells (Source). 

The late Medieval period in Europe saw more class separation based on kitchen location; in wealthy homes, servants were relegated to these smokey, smelly areas and further removed from the main living space (Source).

Later in the Renaissance, other sources of heating were created, so kitchens could be even further removed from main living areas (Source). 

Wealthy homeowners of the Renaissance period began to keep kitchens in separate buildings from the main home, creating even more social class separation from servants (Source).

Colonial kitchens in America were sometimes included as part of the main dwelling, although sometimes – particularly in hot southern areas – separate summer kitchens existed to prevent overheating homes in summer months, with the added benefit of decreasing risk of fire to the homes, and decreasing cooking smells in the homes. These kitchens were dominated by large fireplaces with hearths (Source).

Colonial cooks made efforts to maintain their fires overnight, covering the hot coals and stoking them again in the morning, easing their labor (Source). 

The Federal period saw the invention of the Rumford stove in Britain in 1800, which was the first stove to heat multiple things from a single source of fire. Kitchens were still separate from main living areas – whether servants were present or not – as these spaces were still not considered appropriate for entertaining guests due to their less aesthetically-pleasing, utilitarian nature (Source).

In the 1830s, the Oberlin Cast-Iron Stove was created, and was more compact than stoves before it (Source)

The Victorian Period encompassed a significant uptick in technological advances. Stoves continued to evolve significantly, and eventually were powered by gas, resulting in cleaner kitchens and cities, (compared to their wood- and coal-burning predecessors). These stoves also allowed faster cook times. The addition of  water pipes to homes (initially for waste removal) also allowed for easier access to water for cooking and cleaning purposes (Source). 

Late 19th century, middle-class homes benefited from technological innovations to make kitchens cleaner, and did not have the same “class separation” as the wealthy did from servants; therefore, kitchens could be more closely placed to living spaces, and were presentable enough to entertain guests, resulting in tables and chairs being added to the kitchen (Source)

Increased innovations by the early twentieth century meant diverse cooking abilities. This increased the need for food and utensil storage (Source).

In 1899, the Hoosier Manufacturing Company met the need for increased kitchen storage with the invention of the state-of-the-art Hoosier Cabinet (Source). 

Technological and industrial advancements encouraged more time-saving, including mass-production. This impacted kitchens, resulting in a focus on ergonomic efficiency: designing the environment to fit the person rather than the other way around (Source). 

Austria’s first female architect, Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky, pioneered a fitted kitchen – the “Frankfurt Kitchen” – in the name of ergonomic efficiency in 1926. It included prefabricated cabinets and counter tops (Source). 

Ergonomic design and fitted kitchens continued to be popular in the wartime era of the 1930s and 1940s. Continued innovation led to increased technology in appliances and flooring – local Armstrong‘s linoleum floors became popular (Source). 

The 1960s and 1970s witnessed a renewed interest in and veneration for homecooking and cookware and utensils were upgraded and were popular items for the home – kitchens became more about entertaining guests and showing off culinary skills (Source).

The 1980s brought open kitchen spaces, and even more kitchen innovation. These continued innovations in technology and kitchen design, as well as kitchens’ use as entertainment and even living space and hubs only grow as we evolve into the 21st century. 

 

Kitchens in Your Historic Home

As with bathrooms, it is a rare thing indeed to find an intact kitchen in a historic home. In fact, it might be rarer to find a kitchen than bathroom, as kitchens are often most subject to trends (it’s much less desirable to toil over a hearth when you can use an electric or gas stove and oven). Depending on the time period your historic kitchen dates from, the amount of work to be done varies. If, for instance,  you are fortunate enough to have an unfitted kitchen, including some of its basic elements such as a sink, you may have an easier time updating it to your liking as there is less material to remove, and you can add modern updates as you like. However, if you have a fitted kitchen from later eras, and want to update it significantly or restore it to a much earlier time, this will create much more work for your or your contractor. Below are a combination of suggestions and solutions from various resources, including Restoring Your Historic House by Scott T. Hanson

Period kitchens should be approached with sensitivity to their or the home’s period of significance.

 

Restoring an old kitchen. In the rare case that you find an intact kitchen, the same general rules of restoration, preservation, and rehabilitation apply. Consider approaching the kitchen with sensitivity to its time period. Depending on the era, this may mean rehabilitating it as a utilitarian workspace (at least in form if not function). If extra space is needed, it is best to avoid expanding into a formal room of the house, so as to avoid significant alterations to the historic footprint, and consider expanding into an existing pantry or mudroom, or consider a sympathetic addition, as suggested by CJ Hurley Century Arts. If permanent features need to be replaced, remember to replace in-kind. Also, if you need to update plumbing and electric, refer to our post on bathrooms for similar information. 

Creating a new kitchen (period appropriate or not). Given kitchens’ vulnerability to trends, there is a greater likelihood that if you want a period kitchen you will have to create – or recreate – one. As Hanson notes (p. 130), consider first the interior elements of the home that represent its general age and style; if the more formal rooms differ from the less formal rooms, consider that the kitchen should emulate the less formal rooms, as would have been the case in much older homes.  

The next decision to make is whether you want to have a period appropriate kitchen or not. To achieve a period feel (with modern innovations), Hanson (p. 130-131) recommends a “hybrid approach” including modern pieces of furniture but excluding continuous built-in counter tops throughout the room, and also consider incorporating a period-appropriate pantry. it’s also beneficial to consider appliances and utensils that are period-appropriate and are either antique, reproduction, or modified (e.g., a historic-looking cabinet hiding a modern refrigerator).  Reference quality resources to emulate a true period feel. It is essential to reference good resources for a period kitchen. Access to primary sources are more abundant today with the internet, and you can find thousands of period kitchen images on the Library of Congress site, as well as in copies of housekeeping books from bygone eras (which often include plans for kitchens and pantries). Historic house museums can also offer primary source inspiration. Quality secondary sources include books like Restoring Your Historic Houseand websites like Old House Online and Period Homes.

Hanson (p. 133) adds that kitchens (and baths) are rooms where you may ignore the home’s “period of significance” and still evoke a period feel, simply due to the fact that what is historic to us in a kitchen (or bathroom) was a modern update in the history of the house. If the house was never updated with a modern kitchen, you may use an educated guess as to what might have been added, utilizing knowledge of the evolution of kitchens and choosing a time when one would likely have been incorporated. 

Consideration of cabinetry used is also important. Custom-work tends to look more authentic, but is expensive. Hanson (p. 134) notes that a good design can make modular cabinets look custom. When installing these things, Hanson (p. 135) also recommends making sure measurement is accurate, as he states that corners are “often out of square” and floors may not be level. Having the store, kitchen center, or other professional do the measuring for you will decrease likelihood of incurred expenses if you measure incorrectly yourself. 

Consider adjustments when marrying old with new. For example, old windows may be too low to accommodate the typical built-in cabinets and counter tops; a solution to this issue is to allow a window well behind a counter top to accommodate the window, or build custom cabinets below the window level.  Hanson (p. 135) adds that modern cabinets and counter tops’ standard sizes may not match that of historical ones, and adjustments may need to be made to give them a period feel. 

 

IN SUMMARY: 

Kitchens have come a long way over the centuries, evolving from smokey, smelly, utilitarian spaces that also served to separate different classes of people, to clean, modern showpieces that are the hub of homes regardless of socioeconomic status. Even with modern sensibilities and trends, period kitchens deserve special consideration in period homes, and fortunately the old can be married with the new while maintaining an appropriate period feel. 

 

For further resources and reading: 

  • For restoring or creating a period appropriate (or not) bathroom in your historic home, we recommend these books: Restoring Old Houses by Nigel Hutchins, and Restoring Your Historic House by Scott T. Hanson
  • For buying reproduction appliances or restoring originals: this site, and these sites.
  • For more information regarding historic foodways or to get involved with workshops in our region: this site and this site

 

In case you missed it, check out our similar post on another vulnerable room in historic homes: THE BATHROOM.

 

 

Jeffrey Marshall, the president of Heritage Conservancy in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, joined the Practical Preservation Podcast to discuss the organization’s mission and work conserving and preserving a combination of natural and cultural heritage resources in Southeastern Pennsylvania. We covered multiple topics, including:

  • Jeffrey’s background combining his lifelong loves of nature, history, and architecture with his graduate studies
  • Heritage Conservancy’s function as a non-profit organization in the Southeastern PA region, focused on dual aspects of community and cultural heritage: conservation of open spaces and natural resources and preservation of historic buildings
  • Educational outreach by Heritage Conservancy, including Jeffrey’s “Sherlock Homes” old house detective character, aiding homeowners in “investigations” of their old homes’ histories via consultation or research
  • The conservancy’s work assisting owners of old homes and buildings with applying for National Register status and obtaining conservation land easements or historic preservation easements
  • Challenges and trends in these fields, including decreased interest in conservation and preservation of local cultural heritage and greater numbers of new residents without local roots, resulting in an increased need to teach more community members why local cultural heritage is important to everyone

 

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Follow their News & Events webpage or follow them on Facebook to find out about events and new projects!

The conservancy and Jeffrey believe that we are all custodians and caretakers of our collective and local cultural heritage, and it’s important for individuals to do what they can – even if you’re not in the Southeastern PA region, contact them for suggestions on taking action in your own community.

A few weeks ago an article was posted to the Preservation Professionals group on Facebook. You can read the article here: https://www.rewire.org/how-discussions-of-neighborhood-character-reinforce-structural-racism/.  The article is an interesting discussion of how redevelopment can impact the the neighborhood qualities and characteristics especially in relation to affordable housing.  The example used in the article is from St. Paul, Minnesota and the proposed development of a Ford Motor Company Assembly Plant (closed for over a decade).  A developer purchased the site and proposed an adaptive reuse with 3,800 housing units of those 20% would be affordable housing.  Based on these facts (as I know them) I do not think this is inconsistent with the neighborhood, it is preserving the buildings, and affordable housing is a problem in America that needs a solution.  There are studies that mixed income neighborhoods are mutually beneficial (https://www.useful-community-development.org/mixed-income-housing.html).  The neighbors lived near an operating auto manufacturer for many years and it do not have a negative impact on the property values and I would assume housing would be less disruptive than manufacturing to the surrounding area.

Locally there is a proposed redevelopment of a former hospital site in North West Lancaster (near Franklin and Marshall College).  Reading the numbers of units the developer is proposing (a total of 245 units projected on the low end.  With 120 as low-and-moderate income units) will significantly alter this neighborhood.  I understand that the developer needs have a certain number of units to make the financials work for the project.  Here’s a link to the article from LancasterOnline: 

https://lancasteronline.com/opinion/editorials/development-of-former-st-josephs-hospital-site-in-lancaster-holds-promise-editorial/article_92163b1e-d04b-11ea-9c97-2bcd76442638.html

I agree that redeveloping the existing building is positive for the community.  The proposed number of units is concerning to me from a streetscape standpoint.  They are proposing, “Building 25 to 30 row homes for sale along West End Avenue between West Walnut Street and Marietta Avenue, restoring how the block looked before it became hospital parking.”  I am sure there were never 25 to 30 row houses in one city block.  There are traditional row houses in this neighborhood (along with larger single family homes – it was part of the first push to the suburbs from Lancaster City).  The Sanborn Map below shows the neighborhood with the original hospital building (replaced in the 1960’s):

Squeezing 25 to 30 row house on to a single block will change the look of the neighborhood.  The Secretary of Interior Standard #9 states, “New additions, exterior alterations, or related new construction will not destroy historic materials, features, and spatial relationships that characterize the property.  The new work shall be differentiated from the old and compatible with the historic materials, features, size, scale and proportion, and massing to protect the integrity of the property and its environment.”  Any proposed new construction should be required to meet these standards.

There is not a one size fits all answer to development and preservation.  I remind people that zoning and development decisions are made at the local level.  If you want to help shape the development, demolition permission process, or the historic preservation protections you must get involved locally.

Lindsey Bennett of KIZ Resources, LLC, joined the Practical Preservation Podcast to discuss the company’s tax credit transfer services. We covered multiple topics, including:

  • Origins of the company – originally named for the Keystone Innovation Zone Tax Credit (KIZ) – and their focus on state and federal tax credit transfers for businesses
  • Their specialized services assisting businesses located in historic buildings to enroll in and benefit from the Pennsylvania Historic Preservation Tax Credit Program, as well as federal preservation tax credits
  • Qualifications for the preservation tax credit programs, including that the applicants must have income-producing buildings, the building must be on the National Register of Historic Places, any renovations must follow the Secretary of the Interior’s standards for historic rehabilitation, as well as some other stipulations
  • Other services provided, including assisting clients with selling tax credits, the Keystone Innovation Zone Tax Credit, and Neighborhood Assistance Program, among others
  • Challenges with uncertainty of state budgets, particularly given COVID-19, and Lindsey’s recommendation to business-owning constituents in Pennsylvania to reach out to legislators and encourage them to continue to support funding for tax credits

 

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Follow them on Facebook (or contact them) to find out about seminars available to learn more!

 

THIS IS A RE-POST OF A BLOG WE ORIGINALLY POSTED SEPTEMBER 2012:

*Updates have been made throughout this piece, including additional terms and new links for sources of those definitions.

 

PRESERVATION TERMINOLOGY: It’s one of the most common barriers between preservationists and those who do not define themselves as preservationists. It is the language we “building-huggers” use.  Below, we share a GLOSSARY of some common preservation terms and their basic definitions, as well as real-life examples.

 

The Rosetta Stone – the ultimate translator. Photo by Matteo Vistocco on Unsplash

 

Adaptive Reuse. “The conversion of a building to a use other than that for which it was originally designed, optimally, respecting the historic features of the building” (Source). This definition speaks for itself.

  • Examples: Find a discussion of benefits of adaptive reuse here, as well as a podcast about a local adaptive reuse project here.

Conservation District. Somewhat different from a Historic District, “Neighborhood Conservation districts are areas located in residential neighborhoods with a distinct physical character. Although these neighborhoods tend not to merit designation as a historic district, they warrant special land-use attention due to their distinctive character and importance as viable, contributing areas to the community at large” (Source).  These essentially focus on preserving community character vs. historic fabric. 

  • Example: Queen Village in Philadelphia is a designated neighborhood conservation district. 

Cultural Landscape. “A geographic area, including both cultural and natural resources and the wildlife or domestic animals therein, associated with a historic event, activity, or person, or exhibiting other cultural or aesthetic values” (Source). Simply, it’s a historically significant location evidencing human interaction with the physical environment. 

  • Example: Regionally, Valley Forge is a cultural landscape. 

Easement. “Legal protection (recorded in a property deed) for distinguishing features of the interior or exterior of a property or in the space surrounding a property because such features are deemed important to be preserved. For example, a new property owner may be prevented from making changes or additions to a building, structure, or landscape by an easement in the property deed itself. These are sometimes specified as preservation easements or conservation easements” (Source).  Essentially, a property owner makes a voluntary, legal, agreement to permanently protect a historic property. 

  • Examples: Our previous post includes a discussion of easements and how you can establish one. There are several benefits and incentives to easements, here

Historic(al) Context. This is “a unit created for planning purposes that groups information about historic properties based on a shared theme, specific time period and geographical area” (Source). Whether buildings, monuments, or other objects or spaces, this refers to the circumstances surrounding the item of focus during its time of historical significance or creation.

  • Examples: Historical context is a major point of focus in some of our recent articles, here and here. Current events surrounding monuments to Confederates or other people known for enslaving people also warrant discussion of historical context

Historic District. Related to, but not the same as a Neighborhood Conservation District (see above), “A geographically definable area that possess a significant concentration of buildings or sites that have been united architecturally or historically. Individual buildings in a district need not be individual historic landmarks; they can derive their significance in association with the district. A district occasionally also comprises individual elements separated geographically but thematically linked by association or history” (Source). In other words, this is an area where older buildings are considered significant or valuable for architectural or historical reasons.

  • Example: There are a number of historic districts here in Lancaster, PA.

Historic Fabric. “The physical material of a building, structure, or city that is historic” (Source). Not literally referring to fabric/textiles (although it could!), fabric in this case is just the original physical materials making up a historic structure.

  • Example: The historic fabric of a property is what makes it relevant to preservationists and lovers of history – check out our archives

Historic(al) Integrity. This is “the authenticity of a property’s historic identity, evidenced by the survival of physical characteristics that existed during the property’s historic or prehistoric period” (Source). Preservation is more than saving a building – even if a building remains standing, it may not have the same meaning if the most important parts of the historic fabric are gone, aka it loses its historic integrity.

  • Examples: There are potential consequences to lost historic integrity, as noted here. The National Park Service discusses this in greater detail here, and the National Trust for Historic Preservation discusses the importance of this aspect for seeking National Register Status, here

Historical Significance. “Having particularly important associations within the contexts of architecture, history, and culture” (Source). This may refer to a building’s or other object’s direct association with historically significant or important people, events, or information, or even something that affords historically significant information.

  • Examples: The National Register discusses more details about historical significance here.  The National Trust for Historic Preservation provides clarity and suggestions for interpreting and determining historical significance for those seeking National Register Designation here and here

National Register of Historic Places. “The comprehensive list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects of national, regional, state, and local significance in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, and culture kept by the National Park Service under authority of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966” (Source). It is the official list of historic places and objects deemed worthy of preservation. 

  • Examples: You can find a list of locations in Pennsylvania on the list here. The National Trust provides information on how to apply for this status, here.

Period of Significance. “The span of time in which a property attained the significance for which it meets the National Register criteria” (Source). Historical properties may witness or survive many potentially significant events, but generally one specific time or event determines the property’s significance and eligibility for the National Register.

  • Example: The Eisenhower National Historic Site in Gettysburg, PA represents a property made eligible for the National Register due to the significance of a later period in its existence; namely, only once it was purchased by President Eisenhower. 

Preservation. “Focuses on the maintenance and repair of existing historic materials and the retention of a property’s features that have achieved historic significance” (Source). Preserving something means protecting and maintaining the historic features as close to the original as possible – this is the heart of what we do!

  • Example: The National Park Service discusses preservation in detail here

Reconstruction. “Reconstruction is defined as the act or process of depicting, by means of new construction, the form, features, and detailing of a non-surviving site, landscape, building, structure, or object for the purpose of replicating its appearance at a specific period of time and in its historic location” (Source). Sometimes missing or damaged-beyond-repair aspects of a historic property need to be totally reconstructed using the same methods and materials to get as close to the original as possible.

  • Example: Pennsbury Manor outside of Philadelphia is a well-known example of a complete reconstruction.

Rehabilitation. “Rehabilitation is the process of returning a property to a state of utility, through repair or alteration, and makes possible an efficient contemporary use while preserving those portions and features of the property which are significant to its historic, architectural and cultural values” (Source). This process basically makes something useful for contemporary use or living while retaining or protecting the most important historical aspects” (Source). This is basically the same thing as adaptive reuse (see above), although, unlike adaptive reuse, rehabilitation may include projects that are more likely to use properties for the same (or similar) tasks as the original use.

  • Examples: This silk mill is still being used for production, but with a new product. 

Restoration. “Restoration is returning a site to its original form and condition as represented by a specified period of time using materials that are as similar as possible to the original ones” (Source). Closely related to Reconstruction because Restoration sometimes involves reconstruction methods, but with the added specification of restoring a property to a particular time (which may involve removing evidence of other periods). 

  • Example: Here’s a complete restoration project we were involved in.

Section 106. “The Section 106 review process is an integral component of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966. Section 106 of the NHPA requires that each federal agency identify and assess the effects its actions may have on historic buildings. Under Section 106, each federal agency must consider public views and concerns about historic preservation issues when making final project decisions” (Source). This applies only to agencies affiliated with the federal government (who are proposing projects that may impact historic properties), but as a member of the public, it allows your involvement to voice concerns and ask questions. 

  • Examples: The National Park Service and the Advisory Council for Historic Preservation go into more detail here and here. More information for the layman is available here from The National Trust.

SHPO. “State Historic Preservation Officer –an official within each state appointed by the
governor to administer the state historic preservation program and carry out certain
responsibilities relating to federal undertakings within the state”
(Source). You may hear this acronym pronounced to sound like “Shippo” – it may refer to the Officer or the Office in each state for historic preservation.

  • Example: Here is a guide as to what State Historic Preservation Officers do, and here is the link to the SHPO (office) for Pennsylvania.

Standards and Guidelines. “The Standards are neither technical nor prescriptive, but are intended to promote responsible preservation practices that help protect our Nation’s irreplaceable cultural resources. For example, they cannot, in and of themselves, be used to make essential decisions about which features of the historic building should be saved and which can be changed. But once a treatment is selected, the Standards provide philosophical consistency to the work” (Source).  The standards (Preservation, Rehabilitation, Restoration, and Reconstruction) are what the Secretary of the Interior and the National Park Service recommend, to hopefully homogenize treatment of historical properties and sites nationally. The guidelines (here) provide more detailed information on execution of the standards.

  • Example: The National Trust provides more information on how to interpret these. 

 

An interesting end note:

The term “historic preservation” is unique to the U.S. and is a relatively new term – it originated in the 1960’s in response to an urban renewal planning movement that would eventually fail.  Other English-speaking countries use different terms like “architectural conservation”, “built environment conservation”, “built heritage conservation” and “immovable object conservation”. 

 

Tell us your thoughts…

What other preservation terms do you find confusing?
Are you still unsure of what the terms defined above mean?
What is the preservation term that endears itself the most to you?
How do you clarify confusing preservation terms?
What is the most commonly misunderstood preservation term you run into?
Let us know in the comments below…

Steve Larson, principal at Adelphi Paper Hangings, joined the Practical Preservation Podcast to discuss his work recreating historic block print wallpaper. We covered multiple topics, including:

  • Steve’s background growing up with access to his father’s paint and wallpaper store, and his art school projects using wallpaper
  • How a project on block print wallpaper at the Farmers’ Museum in Cooperstown, NY eventually led to the founding of Adelphi Paper Hangings in 1999
  • The history of wallpaper in America
  • Adelphi Paper Hangings’ products, all of which are block print style and primarily from the “Golden Age” of block-printing (1740-1840)
  • The block printing process they use, including materials and procedures closely aligned with those of the past
  • Recommendations on how to purchase wallpaper, including measuring amounts needed, and the pricing process for commissioned pieces
  • Notable projects and commissions, including ones at the DAR museum, Mt. Vernon, and Sir John Soane’s Museum in London, England

 

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If you’re unsure of the benefits of historic reproduction block-print wall paper, Steve indicates that with Adelphi’s block print process, the final resulting wall paper has a richer surface appearance that can’t be replicated with screen or digital printing, and is best for reproducing a historic pattern. 

For information about products and services visit here, and for information about ordering, go here.

You may also contact them about free samples the size of business envelopes, or larger $15 samples. 

 

BATHROOMS or whatever you call them, as they have many names – are a necessary part of our lives, but we often take them for granted. Bathrooms did not always exist as a dedicated room, and the conglomeration of fixtures and practices that occur in these rooms today, as well as the design of these rooms, are a result of many societal and technological changes. Understanding the history can help you better appreciate (or create) your own historic or period appropriate bathroom.


Illustration of early 20th century bathroom from the Standard Sanitary Manufacturing Company. Image Source: Wikipedia’s Entry on Bathroom.

 

Bathrooms: History and Evolution

Bathing and specific elimination practices (e.g., toileting) have been around in some form since humans have existed on Earth. However, more sophisticated practices – including devoted bath houses and use of bathtubs – began as early as 3000 B.C. in what is now Pakistan, with the Indus Valley Civilization, and continued with the early Greeks and Romans. In those times, people focused on purity but not necessarily health and hygiene, and water was seen as a cleansing element for spiritual and physical purposes. So powerful was the belief in water’s protective spiritual properties that communal baths were sometimes kept separate from domestic living spaces to protect the living spaces from evil spirits. The Romans especially valued bathing as a way to relax and revive themselves, as well as an outlet to commune with others. However, the wealthy also often had private bath spaces. (Source). 

The oldest-surviving bathtub dates to 1700 B.C. and was located in a palace in Crete. (Source).

In ancient times there were also some primitive flushing toilets, although many public toilets in Rome were anything but private and did not necessarily flush. (Source). 

In addition to limited private toilets, many ancient Romans were relegated to using primitive, communal items before the invention of toilet paper. (Source). 

In the Middle Ages, public bathhouses continued to be used, and soap first came into production. Other items such as combs, tweezers, and mouthwash were also in use. (Source). 

Contrary to popular belief, people in the Middle Ages valued bathing, particularly steam baths. Baths were generally public baths and men and women communed together; although, women covered their hair for “decency.” (Source)

During the Renaissance, private bathrooms became more popular. However, fears increased about disease, associated with water, and bathing was discouraged in favor of focused washing. Clean linens were thought to be sufficient to pull toxins from, cleanse, and deodorize the body, and women during this time toiled over washing. (Source). 

In 1546, King Henry VIII ordered the closure of public bathhouses, as these – specifically, their water – were blamed for the 7 plagues that occurred in England over a 200-year span. (Source).

Public toilets were used by the lower classes in the Renaissance and often placed on bridges over rivers, the “sewage system” being that debris would float away in the river. In the countryside and in some private city homes privies existed in sheds or cellars, usually consisting of seats situated over cesspits. Portable chamber pots were the preferred means of elimination by the wealthy and royal, and were simply emptied into the streets. (Source). 

The first flush toilet was invented by Sir John Harrington in 1596, but was not widespread until nearly 3 decades later –  the wealthy and royal preferred chamber pots be brought to them, and not to walk to a room only for toileting as it would be considered immodest. (Source). 

By the 18th century, daily bathing was still uncommon. However, in England the wealthy were able to have taps put into their homes allowing for private bathing, thanks to a massive irrigation project. Otherwise, most of the bathroom rituals we use today were still done in the bedroom, which usually included a basin and washstand (and often a chamber pot). (Source). 

The shower was invented by William Feetham in 1767. (Source).

By the 19th century, houses were beginning to be designed around usefulness of each room. The discovery and dissemination of information about germs and hygiene was more widespread in Europe and America, and many homes of the middle and upper class had bathrooms – as bathing was considered necessary for good hygiene – while mass showers existed for the poor. The Industrial Revolution also facilitated  mechanization in the bathroom, including gas water heaters for hot-water production. (Source). 

The 19th century saw major changes in private bathrooms in the home, including flush toilets in the 1850’s, and the electric water heater in 1889. (Source). 

In the late 19th century more was discovered about infectious disease and bacteria, and previously wooden bathrooms transitioned to porcelain and enamel surfaces, with more exposed pipes that were “easier to clean,” tile and linoleum replaced wood floors, and drapery was significantly reduced, and this continued into the early 20th century. (Source). 

The late 19th and early 20th century’s concerns about disease also resulted in the introduction of second bathrooms – “powder rooms” – or half-baths often on the first floor, near the entrance, so delivery people could wash their hands and prevent bringing germs into the home. (Source). 

As the 20th century moved beyond the hygiene movement, and the public was exposed to two world wars, glamorized interiors featured in movies, and a greater increase in population and technological advancement, people were more interested in having fully-equipped bathrooms that served functional needs as well as offered respite. The growing middle class was also able to afford these luxuries with mass-production enabling affordable products. (Source). 

The 1950’s realized en suite bathrooms, as well as separate bathrooms for the children. (Source)

As people have continued to associate bathrooms with comfort and escapism, the number of bathrooms per person in each household have steadily increased, and bathrooms continue to be an important part of each household. (Source). 

 

Bathrooms in Your Historic Home

If luck is on your side, you may acquire a historic home with a period bathroom still in place, although this is rare given that bathrooms (and kitchens) usually were the first “victims” of updates to historic homes, and are some of the most modified and modernized rooms. Depending on the old bathroom’s condition, there may be significant work to do. Because of the last few decades’ emphasis on college education and continued focus on mass-produced items that are generally not repairable and have short shelf-life, skilled labor and trades people have dwindled, so repair may be more difficult. However, increased demand for historic features has also resulted in more reproduction options available, many of which are up-to-code. Sometimes it is necessary or preferred to create a new bathroom, either modern or styled to a chosen time in the house’s history. Regardless, it is important to always remember that water is the enemy of a historic home, and any modern updates must account for this. Below are a combination of suggestions from Restoring Old Houses by Nigel Hutchins, and Restoring Your Historic House by Scott T. Hanson

It is important to remember that water is the enemy of historic homes, so all plumbing should be in good condition and well-maintained to prevent water disasters.

 

Restoring an old bathroom. General period plumbing knowledge is important in old bathrooms. Many old homes have extant period plumbing fixtures and these were designed to be repairable – just be sure they are adapted to meet modern codes and standards. A knowledgeable plumber and flexible code officer can be helpful with this. (Hanson, p. 374). Old plumbing fixtures and features should be examined for breaks and other damage and replaced with copper or plastic where necessary; return traps and vent stacks should be cleared; worn gaskets and washers should be replaced; and entire systems should be flushed and pressure checked (Hutchins, p. 179). Some shops and companies specialize in repair of such fixtures (Hanson, p. 375).

If something is missing, beyond repair, or simply cannot be adapted to meet modern code requirements, it is recommended that you look for antiques (often through salvage, but again these must be adapted to modern codes), or options among the many reproductions on the market. It is highly recommended you compare the quality of the originals to the reproductions, and buy as high quality as you can afford. This will more likely prevent failure and subsequent disaster from burst pipes (Hanson, p. 376; Hutchins, p. 178).

Rural residents have even more unique circumstances, including utilizing wells for water sources and septic tanks for waste disposal. Hutchins (p. 179) recommends that people in the countryside check their old wells for rotten covers, bacteria in the water, and how well they refill. Many old wells cannot accommodate modern needs and new wells must be dug, which are expensive – it is recommended a homeowner budgets accordingly.

Antique toilets also need to meet modern standards, even if they are antique. Hanson (p. 374) notes that some communities have strict water ordinances, and toilets from times past were designed to use much more water to flush (and thus fully clear the bowl) than is allowed by modern code. In some cases, an extant toilet can be grandfathered in. In other instances modifications to the tank such as stacked bricks or a tank liner can decrease water – Hanson warns, however, that because of the original design, this decreased water may not be sufficient to clear the bowl. High tank toilets are generally more successful because of the additional velocity they allow water when it travels from tank to toilet. 

Antique sinks also generally require modification to meet modern standards. Sometimes, antique sinks and counter tops simply need cleaning; marble sinks and counter tops can be cleaned with paint cleaner and steel wool, although deeper stains may require fine sandpaper and muriatic acid (Hutchins, p. 179). Hanson (p. 374-375). Problems usually stem from the size of drain holes and the spacing of faucet holes. An old sink that is missing the 2-hole drain stem can present a conundrum, as salvaged parts may be hard to come by, and it does not match modern pieces. Sink bowls of various materials may have these holes widened to accommodate modern needs. If the traditionally-separate hot and cold faucets are missing, reproductions can convert the hot and cold into one, and still visually represent the original time period.If a required overflow drain is missing, modifications can be made to retain the antique bowl; Hanson recommends connecting the bowl to the above top with a gap in between, and putting a modern bowl below to catch overflow. This of course should always be checked with local code enforcers.

Period tubs or showers can often be restored with epoxies – or homeowners can purchase “new” antiques and restore those, if needed (Hutchins, p. 179). Similar adjustments may need to be made to the plumbing parts as were noted for sinks, above. 

  •  

Creating a new bathroom (period appropriate or not). Hutchins (p. 178) provides several general plumbing points when creating a bathroom space. He indicates that plumbing should not be run on exterior walls because of insulation difficulties, and sufficient venting is necessary for plumbing. He also states that other considerations should be made if converting a non-bathroom into a bathroom. For example, one must consider if there is enough head room for a shower, if ceiling beams below (if on an upper floor) will be impacted by plumbing pipes, and if the room has wood features, how those features will be treated to protect them from moisture penetration. 

Laundry features should also be considered. Although not inherently part of a bathroom in most cases, Hanson (p. 377) also points out that given most modern private homes have laundry areas or rooms, and many of these are now being moved from the basement level to first floors, caution is warranted to protect historic interiors. For example, Hanson notes that typically-cheap hoses often result in burst pipes and indoor flooding disasters. These issues can be prevented – or at least mitigated – by replacing cheap hoses with high-quality woven stainless steel washer hoses, and installing overflow trays with drains for added protection, according to Hanson. 

 

IN SUMMARY: 

Modern people may be less modest than people of the past, but the bathroom and related activities can still be a taboo subject for some. For others, it’s simply taken for granted. But we must remember how essential bathrooms are to our physical and mental health, hygiene, and relaxation. As such, it’s important to treat and maintain these spaces well, particularly to protect the integrity of our historic homes. 

 

For further resources and reading: 

Stay tuned for a similar post on another vulnerable room in historic homes: THE KITCHEN.

Jymm Hoffman, blacksmith and owner of Hoffman’s Forge, joined the Practical Preservation Podcast to discuss his work as a blacksmith and historical consultant. We covered multiple topics, including:

  • His background, including how reenacting sparked his interest in preservation
  • How he maintains historical-accuracy wherever possible, and his research-findings including the diverse skills and jobs of historical blacksmiths
  • The consultation process with clients and the diversity of projects
  • Projects of note, including creating kitchen equipment for the Renfrew Museum
  • What he wishes he knew when he started, as well as challenges in preservation related to blacksmithing

 

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PRESERVATIONIST VS. REVISIONIST HISTORY, REVISITED. It’s been awhile since we specifically addressed this topic, but given current circumstances, it bears repeating, albeit updated to current events. 

“History, despite its wrenching pain cannot be unlived, but if faced with courage need not be lived again.”

-Maya Angelou

 

-Defaced Robert E. Lee Monument, Richmond, Virginia. Image Source: By Mk17b on Wikipedia’s entry on Robert E. Lee Monument (Richmond, VA).

 

Definition and History

Firstly, what is “revisionist history” or “revisionism”? Merriam-Webster’s second definition applies: “advocacy of revision (as of a doctrine or policy or in historical analysis).”  This does not provide much information for our purposes. It only indicates a revision – update, alteration, correction, or improvement – of what was there. Taken at face-value, this might be considered a neutral or even positive action, supposing that something is improved upon. However, we must also take into consideration the history of revisionism, and the fact that the term has become synonymous with reprehensible intentions.

Many historians and writers have contended that all history is revisionist, in the literal sense; once additional historical information is discovered, it is added to or replaces the originally-known history, revising the history that was previously accepted. The result is (hopefully) a more accurate and objective representation of the past. Positive examples include providing more accurate, comprehensive history in the educational system

When discussed in the context of current events and past atrocities, it often takes on a more pejorative meaning: namely, that some people will modify history to benefit themselves and their agenda, often in a way that harms others. Perhaps a more accurate distinction is between the technically neutral term “revisionism,” and terms with inherently negative connotations like “negationism” or “denialism.” These terms more specifically refer to a politically-motivated distortion of historic records and rejection of facts or reality to avoid one’s own discomfort, meanings that are not automatically part of the definition of “revisionism.”

Most history is revisionist, and revisionism is not inherently bad. Negationism or denialism are really what people mean when disparagingly referring to revisionism.

 

Revisionist History and the Built Environment

People typically discuss “revisionist history,” “negationism,” and “denialism” in terms of substantial pieces of cultural significance, such as public properties (owned by historical societies and the National Park Service), monuments, and world heritage sites. These terms may not come to mind when thinking about a privately-owned historic house or property. However, depending on an owner’s intention, the ideas may loosely apply or parallel decisions related to the four treatments of historic properties: preservation, rehabilitation, restoration, or reconstruction.

For example, certain regulatory (or financial) issues may be mitigating factors in which treatment process is chosen, including local and federal historic district designations, building codes, insurance, etc. Once these factors are addressed, depending on resulting latitude, a homeowner may choose to restore a home only to a single time-period. More often, “revisions” are made that include multiple eras, especially as historic homeowners who steward homes built prior to the advent of modern plumbing opt to restore other parts of the home to its original time period while retaining the modern plumbing retrofits to maintain a standard of modern-living. This could be considered revisionist in that the home ends up telling a more holistic story of the house’s history, rather than focusing on only one earlier iteration of the home. However, a full restoration to one specific time period could also be considered revisionist in that it eliminates certain parts of the house’s entire history, and chooses to only depict one era. Neither of these revisionist examples is necessarily wrong, or negative, depending on circumstances. However, many preservation-minded people would probably agree that someone making changes in a way that attempts to falsify the history of the home (e.g., changing features that might suggest it comes from an earlier time period) is a poor choice and a negative example of “revisionism.” But, any type of architectural revision to a private property may be more closely related to the intensity of an owner or steward’s preservation-mindedness and personal taste than to ethics, which is really what seems to separate pure “revisionism” from “negationism” or “denialism,” in our opinion.

What typically separates pure revisionism from negationism and denialism is ethics.

 

Relevance of Revisionism in the Year 2020

On first glance, it may seem odd that a historic preservation and restoration contracting company is writing about an ethical issue. But as stewards (and supporters of stewards) of our built history – which includes more than just the brick, mortar, wood and stone objects themselves – we know that the buildings are about the people

That being said, we must address the current issues. Although many of our clients, readers, and followers own private homes or buildings and generally do not deal with issues of revisionism and related terms directly, we also have worked with several organizations (historical societies and the National Park Service among them) that steward buildings for the general population, and who have a duty to represent an inclusive history. We believe it is important to support an inclusive narrative, including that of historically oppressed groups, and tell the entire story. Saving certain objects in a contextual way is an essential element of this cause. One example is the preservation (or attempted preservation) of some of the Holocaust’s concentration camps. These remain for the purpose of telling the full story of the horrors that humans can inflict on one another (despite what denialists say).

Inclusivity – telling the entire story – is an essential part of appropriate revisionism. 

In the U.S., the picture has become more complicated with recent events. Large movements have attempted to remove many symbols of racism and oppression, but often indiscriminately and impulsively. We agree that many of the confederate monuments that were erected many years after the Civil War, typically during the height of Jim Crow, and typically far away from battlefields or other relevant sites, are not appropriate – typically, the losing side does not get to write the history or build the monuments to remember their “glory.” In reality, the Confederate cause was treason and open rebellion against the United States, with the intention of continuing to enslave other people for their own economic gain. With that in mind, it seems strange that we have U.S. military bases named after Confederate Generals.

At the same time, it is important to carefully consider what should be removed and how. Confederate monuments on a battlefield, or even memorials in a graveyard, are contextually-appropriate, representing and educating about battles that occurred at the site, or memorializing the dead in their final resting place. Other objects or sites related to slavery (e.g., whipping posts or slave auction blocks) may warrant removal from the current locations, but likely would be appropriately placed in a sensitive museum display educating people about the heinous acts humans have committed against others, to prevent those things being repeated. Another consideration is that we separate our Founding Fathers and buildings or monuments in their name from the belated Confederate monuments; several historians have pointed to acknowledging that many of them enslaved people, but were essential to creating the U.S., unlike the Confederates who wanted to demolish it

We may be falling down a slippery slope of rewriting history – history can be inclusive and tell a more complete story without rewriting it (e.g., revisionism vs. negationism).  Seeing things like #cancelHamilton (which Danielle watched and thoroughly enjoyed) because of his ties to his wife’s family’s slave ownership, or private homeowners attempting to have their historic homes demolished because of an association with slavery, or renaming college and university buildings because of ties to enslavement, we worry about the indiscriminate calls for wiping away things because of their negative associations. We would hope we can look honestly to the Founders of our Country and tell the completeness of their story (messy, imperfect humans with a noble vision that was also economically motivated) without writing them out of our history.  We think it would be better (and more healing) to acknowledge the truth of their story, provide historical context, and commit to social justice.  This would do more to see the truth of history than remove all traces of the undesirable parts via negationism.  Acknowledging that a lot of prominent Northern families made their money from the slave trade (as shipping companies, supplying plantations in the Caribbean, and textiles) is one way we can come to terms with our collective history.

Regardless, we believe the answer is to take our time deciding what should be done with our vestiges of history before we lose all traces and risk repeating the same injustices.

 

Ahmed Zidan of Hollander Glass joined the Practical Preservation Podcast to discuss the company’s restoration/historic branch, Hollander Historic. We covered multiple topics, including:

  • The company’s background and the history of glass-making
  • The company’s services, primarily as specialty glass fabricators and distributors
  • Hollander’s historic line of restoration window glass, including glass appropriate to periods over the last 300 years
  • Notable projects using Hollander’s historic line, including skylights at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. 
  • Challenges for window restoration projects, including more stringent energy codes

 

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Promotion/Deal:

Ahmed said if you contact him via phone or email and mention this podcast, you will receive a sample restoration window pack including samples of their most popular restoration products!