William Woys Weaver joined the Practical Preservation podcast to discuss his research into food history and how it lead him back to his grandparents garden and forgotten heirloom seeds.  This episode combines my love of food and history.  The intersection of the two tells our collective stories and reflects the values of the time period (it is interesting to me that during the time we began eating lots of processed, easy foods that our building methods also changed to a more assembly line mentality).  

Contact:

Website  email or call with any heirloom seed questions you might have.  

Event: The National Heirloom Seed Expo – with book signing and lectures

Bio:

Described as the “Merlin of American regional cookery,” William Woys Weaver is an internationally known food historian and the author of 17 books. He is a rare four-time winner of the prestigious IACP/Julia Child Cookbook Awards, his most recent gold medal going to Culinary Ephemera, a beautifully illustrated survey of old food advertising materials. His 1993 award winning cookbook Pennsylvania Dutch Country Cooking has been included in the anthology: 100 Great American Cookbooks of the 20th Century. Weaver’s Dutch Treats: Heirloom Recipes from Farmhouse Kitchens was published by St. Lynn’s Press of Pittsburgh in September 2016 and a new edition of his classic Heirloom Vegetable Gardening has been published by the Quarto Press with new photos and expanded text. In May he received the 2019 Award of Excellence from the American Council on Botanical and Horticultural Libraries. Dr. Weaver received his PhD in food ethnography from University College, Dublin (Ireland) – the first degree of its kind to be awarded by that university — and is now Curator Emeritus of the Roughwood Seed Collection of heirloom food plants at the historic Lamb Tavern in Devon, Pennsylvania. Called “the Waldon Pond of heirloom seeds,” the Roughwood Seed Collection provides rare limited edition seeds online at www.TheRoughwoodTable.org and through the Baker Creek Heirloom Seed Company at www.Rareseeds.com Dr. Weaver is presently working on a two-volume study of the medieval foods of Cyprus. His book on pickling with heirloom vegetables called The Roughwood Book of Pickling will be published by Rizzoli this coming September 24th. It is now available for preorders online at Amazon.com.

For further information:
www.WilliamWoysWeaver.com
www.FaceBook.com/ William Woys Weaver: Epicure with Hoe

 

 

Gina Douty joined the Practical Preservation podcast to share with us her over 30 years of historic preservation experience.  Having worked in both the public and private sectors she brings a variety of experiences and knowledge to the discussion (we had a great conversation after we finished the recording about her early experiences as a young, female architect – I wished I had kept the recorder going).

Gina Douty offers historic preservation consulting in Central Pennsylvania (and beyond) her services include:

  • Federal and State Historical Rehabilitation Tax Credit applications and submissions
  • PA Historic Resource Survey Form preparation and submissions
  • National Register Nominations
  • Rehabilitation Proposals
  • Section 106 Reviews as an Architectural Historian (36 CFR Part 61)
  • Grant Writing
  • Historic Building Research, Documentation, Assessment, and General Design Guidance

Contact:

Gina M Douty, Historic Preservation Consulting, LLC 717-512-1032 or email: [email protected]

Conference: PA Statewide Conference on Heritage – No Norm Dorm Case Study 

Bio:

Gina M. Douty is a historic preservation consultant who lives and works in Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania.  Her undergraduate degree is from Penn State University in Architecture with a Special Studies in Historic Preservation.  She began pursuing a Masters in American Studies at Penn State Harrisburg, while working full-time as a Historic Preservation Specialist, then later, an Architectural Designer II with the PA Historical and Museum Commission in Harrisburg.  Gina became a mom, and she took some quality time off from my career to raise her family.  Eventually, she began to work part-time at the office and part-time at a home office, with an architectural firm in Harrisburg.  For over ten years, she was the firm’s preservationist, then later, an Associate.  In 2012, with nearly 25 years in the Historic Preservation field, she created Gina M. Douty, Historic Preservation Consulting, LCC, a certified woman-owned, small business, to assist those who desire, need, or have a passion for historic preservation consulting services.  Gina later completed her Masters degree in Historic Preservation from the Savannah College of Art and Design, and was fortunate to receive the Graduate Achievement award as Preservationist of the Year for her graduating class.

 

Sharon Hanby-Robie joined the Practical Preservation podcast to discuss her interior design philosophy, her new brand of home furnishings “Home by SHR“, how color influences our emotions (it is the second strongest emotional trigger with scent being the first).

Throughout her over forty year career in interior design Sharon has ‘reinvented’ herself many times (successfully) from resident home décor expert for QVC, Inc, wallpaper industry spokesperson, and best-selling author Sharon has found ways to serve her audience and empower people to feel confident in their own decorating skills.

Contact Info:

Website 

Offers:

Christmas in July on QVC

Mention you heard the Practical Preservation podcast for a discounted Color Consulation

Bio:

Sharon has been an interior designer and member of the American Society of Interior Designers (ASID) for more than forty years. She works on projects in many fields including residential, hospitality, and health care, and is a regular speaker for business and women’s organizations. She also continues to write for many magazines and web publications as well as a regular interviewee on radio.
Since 2003, Sharon has been the resident home décor expert for QVC Inc., showcasing the latest in interior design and home fashion to millions of television viewers.
In March 2019 Sharon launched her own brand of home furnishings, “Home by SHR,” on the QVC Television Network. It was very well received and will be expanding in 2020 with accessory and lighting in addition to bedding and area rugs.

From January 2000 – 2005 The Wallpaper Council selected Sharon as the wallpaper industry spokesperson. She used her professional expertise and knowledge as an interior designer and decorating expert to deliver important messages about wallpaper to consumers nationwide.

Sharon was the host of Scripps DIY Network’s Ask DIY show and has been featured on The Today Show; Later Today; QVC, Inc., shopping network; PBS’s Handy Ma’am, HGTV’s Mission Organization, Decorating with Style, Interiors by Design, Smart Solutions; Discovery Channel’s Home Matters, Interior Motives; as well as The Maurey Povich Show, and The Gale King Show.

Sharon is also a best-selling author. The My Name Isn’t Martha series of books include My Name Isn’t Martha But I Can Decorate My Home, and My Name Isn’t Martha, But I can Renovate My Home: The Real Person’s Guide to Home Improvement and Beautiful Places, Spiritual Spaces. Her latest books, titles in The Spirit of Simple LivingTM series, are from Guideposts Books. The Simple Home was released in October 2006. A Simple Wedding was released in the spring of 2007. Sharon’s most recent book is Decorating Without Fear, from Rutledge Hill Press.

Specialties: Media Spokesperson for all areas of the home industry, Media Satellite Tours, Speaking for Business and Women’s groups, Interior Designer, Author.

Wes Swanson joined the Practical Preservation podcast to discuss historic brick making, lime based mortar, and his journey to preservation through his love of history. We discussed a variety of topics related to historic masonry including:

  • The difference between modern and historic bricks, how they get their color, and what they are made of
  • His research of Lancaster City brickmaking 1700’s through the modern era (he has presented the History of Brickmaking and worked with Rockford Plantation to plan STEM lessons based on historic masonry and the masonry trade)
  • The Chicago fire and it’s effect on the Lancaster City building code (no more frame buildings)

Resources discussed:

Mortar analysis: LimeWorks or Lancaster Lime Works 

Tools to remove mortar: Trow & Holden

Bio:

Wes Swanson is an American History teacher at Hempfield school district and also a mason. He has been working in the masonry trade since he was 16. He is currently the owner of Wes Swanson Masonry. After earning a graduate degree in American studies from Penn State he began researching the history of brick making in Lancaster county and has given several lectures on the topic. He has also consulted with Rockford Plantation to plan STEM lessons involving historic brick making and the masonry trade. Syncing his passion for history and masonry he focuses a lot of his masonry work in the summer on brick and stone preservation.

Contact Info:

email: [email protected]

phone: 717-419-5706

Presentation: Brick Making in Lancaster County, July 15th, 7PM at the Mount Joy Historical Society 

 

Michael Cuba from the Timber Framers Guild  joined the Practical Preservation podcast to discuss:

  • Timber framing, of course, but also the differences between modern and repair/preservation techniques.  I had never thought about building timber frames in earthquake prone areas…they have the engineering figured out for that!
  • Learning using hand tools to insure you understand how wood works and reacts before using power tools – learn the classics first as your foundation.
  • How the timber framing can be reconstructed after the fire at Notre Dame
  • The Timber Framers Guild’s almost 40 year mission as a repository of timber frame knowledge and development of future talent

Contact information:

Timber Framers Guild  email: [email protected]

Bio:

Michael Cuba is a preservation joiner and co-founder of Knobb Hill Joinery in northern Vermont. He also runs a consulting and dendrochronology business under the name Transom HPC, located in Stockton, NJ. Michael has recently finished two consecutive terms on the board of directors of the Timber Framers Guild, serving as president and interim executive director for 2018. He remains active on several Guild councils and committees. Along with Adam Miller, Michael now serves as editor of TIMBER FRAMING, the journal of the Timber Framers Guild.

Historical masonry buildings are very different from modern buildings.  Historical bricks were fired at lower temperatures and are much softer and more permeable than modern bricks and buildings constructed with these softer bricks were designed to absorb moisture and then release it.  A key component of this design was the lime mortar historically used in masonry applications, a mortar that was also soft and readily allowed water or vapor to pass through it.

In the late 1800’s, a new mortar debuted in the United States at the height of the Industrial Revolution.  Favored for all the qualities a mass-production revolution could ask for (fast-curing, inexpensive, and less work for masons), Portland cement quickly gained popularity with masons and by the early 1900’s most buildings had some Portland mortar in their masonry surfaces – usually as an additive to traditional lime mortar.  By the mid-1900’s  Portland was no longer used as an additive and became the predominate ingredient in mortar mixes.  Historical buildings were not immune to the new technology and masonry repairs on historical buildings in the 1900’s were predominantly made with Portland mortar.

If your historic building has been re-pointed it likely was with Portland mortar.  A common mistake, Portland mortar applied to historical buildings doesn’t just erode the historic fabric of the building, it causes physical damage that is often permanent.  Traditional mortars worked with the softer historical masonry materials to expand and contract together as temperatures and moisture levels changed, creating a wall and masonry surface that “breathed” to expel excess moisture.  Applying a Portland mortar mix to historical masonry disrupts that relationship and traps moisture in the wall and historical bricks.  Moisture trapped within the walls will not easily pass through Portland cement mortar and will be forced through the soft brick instead, the path of least resistance.  When the water evaporates, salt deposits are left behind that crystallize and destroy the protective shell of the bricks.  Once this outer surface is damaged, the softer interior of the historical bricks rapidly disintegrates.

Portland mortar can cause problems that begin to decay masonry in a few years.  The historical bricks on masonry buildings are not the only things threatened by Portland cement mortar – structural elements, interior features, and occupant health are also compromised by the moisture issues associated with Portland mortar.

Remember, historical masonry materials and mortars were designed from a construction approach that created buildings that “breathed”, allowing moisture both in and out.  Modern masonry materials and mortars are designed from a watertight construction approach that aims to keep water from passing through.

Combining a material from the system designed to let a house “breathe” with a material from a system designed to prevent water from passing through is a recipe for disaster.

The truth is…historical mortar differs significantly at a molecular level from modern mortar.  This difference makes modern mortar incompatible with historical masonry materials, permanently damaging historical masonry materials, and structural elements of masonry buildings, and traps moisture in walls lowering energy efficiency and endangering air quality inside the building.

Historical buildings were built when neither advancements in technology nor construction technology was in abundant supply.  Early designers made the most of building materials and design options to construct buildings with a powerful combination of harnessed natural resources and innovative design that worked together to maximize energy efficiency.

Everything from exterior paint colors, locations of balconies, numbers and placement of windows, to physical placement of buildings on lots was carefully considered to maximize heating, lighting, and ventilation in traditional construction.

The results are astounding, and studies have shown that properly restored and maintained 18th-, 19th, and early 20th century buildings can be just as energy efficient as new construction, and in many cases even more efficient.

The historical wood windows in your building contribute to that energy efficiency, and, contrary to urban legends, new replacement windows are not more energy efficient than historical wood windows.  Typically, studies that conclude such a finding have compared new replacement windows with historical windows that have not been maintained or restored, are decaying, and have no complementary energy retrofits, such as weather-stripping and storm windows.

Studies on energy efficiency also usually fail to consider “embodied energy”. Embodied energy represents the energy it took to manufacture a product.  They say the greenest building is the one already built.  This is true when you consider the embodied energy – an existing energy investment that will never be able to be recaptured once you destroy the product it’s embodied in.

Historical wood windows have an embodied energy value that includes all the energy from harvesting and milling the wood to transporting and manufacturing the windows to installing them in your historical building.  Preserving existing windows conserves that embodied energy and eliminates the need of additional energy to manufacture replacement windows.  When you take all energy into consideration for defining the energy efficiency of windows, historical wood windows are far more energy efficient than replacement windows.

Tips For Improving Energy Efficiency

Here are some tips for improving the energy efficiency in your historic home.

  1. Have a maintenance appraisal performed.  When not properly maintained, there are many ways a historic home’s energy efficiency suffers – such as air leaks into and out of the home.  A maintenance appraisal performed by a qualified contractor will locate any source of air leakage and provide you with a plan-of-attack to remedy the problem without damaging the historic aspects of your home.
  2. Schedule an energy audit.  This could really be tied for the #1 spot; both the maintenance appraisal and an energy audit are absolutely essential things that need to be done BEFORE you implement any energy improvement measures.  The energy audit will evaulate your home’s current energy performance and identify any deficiencies in both the envelope of your home and/or mechanical systems.
  3. Implement these findings.  Hire a qualified contractor to eliminate any air infilitration, repair windows and perform the other maintenance affecting your home’s energy efficiency.  Hire a qualified energy contractor to replace any mechancial systems found to be deterimental to your home’s energy efficiecny.  Make sure both of these contractors have a proven track record of working with historic buildings in a way that does not damage the architecture and its features.
  4. Change your habits.  Install timeers or motion detectors on lights, attach self-closing mechanisms on doors that might otherwise hang open, install fans and raise your thermostat temperature, use LEDs in your lights and turn off “vampire” devices that use electricity in standby mode or that use electricity in standby mode or whenever that are plugged into an outlet.
  5. Install insulation. Ther is a lot of misinformation regarding the best ways to insulate your house, and some of them can even damage your home.  Have the historic contractor and energy consultant you hire work together to devise an insulation plan specifcially tailored to your home, so you won’t compromise its architectural integrity.
Did you know that historical wood windows are one of the most vulnerable and at-risk elements of our architectural heritage?

Preservation Virginia has proclaimed historical windows endangered, saying, “Historic wooden windows are destroyed daily in lieu of new, inferior windows.  Salesman convince owners and architectural review boards members that replacement windows are superior to historic wooden windows when the truth is, these historic windows can last longer than any new wooden or vinyl-clad window.”

Despite this, windows don’t often have a high priority on the list of things we should preserve in our built history.  Yet they should.  If eyes are the windows into the soul, as the old adage goes, then surely windows are how we see into the soul of a historical building.

Windows are an important component in a historical building’s appearance.  Not only are they one of the few parts of a building that serve as both an interior and exterior architectural feature, they usually make up about a quarter of the surface area of a historical building.

Many aspects of windows contribute to a building’s architectural style and historic fabric – height, width, and thickness of frames and sills, the visual design of sash components, the materials and color treatments used, and even the way light reflects off the glass.

Muntins, historical glass, putty beading, moulding profiles, glazed opening widths and regionally specific patterns and features are more distinct characteristics of original wood windows that contribute to a historical building’s façade.  And all of these varied between architectural styles and periods and from region to region, making wood windows living artifacts from history – an archeological gold mine that helps us understand and document historical building practices and craftsmanship.

These features and variances can be difficult to duplicate with modern technology.  Today’s manufacturing and installation process is significantly different than the process used hundreds of years ago.  The characteristics imparted by modern machinery and installation techniques create an entirely different window than the traditional building materials created when the building was originally constructed.  Such a loss of historical elements is a permanent scar on a historical building.

Replacing original wood windows also often requires changing the window’s rough opening to install a window manufactured on national standards to the non-standard opening of a building constructed during a time when there were no building standards – another mistake that permanently damages a building.

Throwing out the artifacts from our built history that stand testament to how buildings have been constructed over the last several hundred years prevents future generations from gaining a deep understanding of a piece of history that’s just as important as the knowledge we gain from all the other artifacts we work so hard to preserve.

Just as we shouldn’t replace our historical art with modern replicas, we shouldn’t replace our historical wood windows with modern replacement windows.  Because once they are gone, they are gone for good.

 

Fireplaces were essential in Early American homes, providing heat, light, and a hearth for cooking, as well as a family gathering place.  In Colonial America, they were usually wide, deep “walk-ins” without much of a mantel.  Those in the homes of Dutch settlers were often wider than tall, while the English settlers built them to be smaller and less spacious.

By the 1700’s, homes commonly featured chimneys, though not everyone was convinced of their virtues.  Benjamin Franklin wrote, “The upright heat flies directly up the Chimny.  Thus Five Sixth at least of the Heat (and consequently of the Fewel) is wasted, and contributes nothing towards warming the Room.”

Benjamin Franklin thought that chimney back drafts were causing illnesses.  He said, “Woman particularly from this Cause (as they sit much in the House) get Colds in the Head.” Ben went on to develop alternative fireplace designs, including the Franklin stove.  Despite hi best efforts, however, the fireplace and its chimney were firmly entrenched in American architecture.

In the mid-Atlantic and northern states, central chimneys served fires in two or more rooms on several floors, to maximize the amount of heat a house retained, while homes in the south used fireplaces at the far ends of the houses to reduce heat buildup.

Until the 1800’s, fireplaces were purely practical affairs.  Heading into the mid-1800’s, however, they became the focal points if the main living areas, with carved mantels and other decorative elements.

In English homes, plain or bead-edged paneling usually surrounded fireplaces from the floor to the ceiling.  Dutch homes hung curtains above the fireplace.  Some homes using blue and white Delftware tiles or the book-matched paneling on either side of the fireplace.  The Federal and Greek Revival-style mantels featured swag, star, or shell accents.  The mantles and hearths of many historic Society Hill neighborhood in Philadelphia were made from King of Prussia marble, quarried in nearby King of Prussia.

In the early 1800’s, size and shape changed the emergence of the “Rumford Fireplace.” Sir Benjamin Thompson, also known as Count Rumford, designed a smaller, shallower affair that was taller than is was wide, with sharply angled sides sloping into a narrow chimney.  It threw more heat back into the room, exhausted smoke more efficiently and eliminated back drafts.  This is the construction design used in most modern masonry fireplaces today.

After the Industrial Revolution, more and more fireplaces featured cast iron arched surrounds with decorative embellishments.

The decorative elements of fireplaces became increasingly ornate with the addition of overmantels, as well as columns and glazed tiles.  In the early 1900’s, design aesthetics reverted to a more rustic and natural style when the “back-to-nature” effort fueled the Arts and Crafts movement.  Today, although practically anything goes, fireplaces remain the sentimental hubs of American homes.

 

Lauren Dillion of Master of Plaster joined the Practical Preservation podcast to discuss:

  • Her introduction to plaster as an art form
  • The different types of plaster (I really didn’t know there were so many) – lime (there are different types of lime!), gypsum, and clay
  • Lauren answered all of my lime wash questions
  • Plus you will hear Lauren’s insights into preservation trends and challenges

It is always enjoyable to speak with someone who is passionate about their work and is as excited about preservation education as we are – I think you will enjoy this episode.

Contact info:

Lauren Dillion, Master of Plaster 

Instagram (lots of pretty pictures)  email: [email protected]  phone: 1-800-352-5915

Offers:

Bio:

Lauren Dillon is the Executive Designer at Master of Plaster Finishing Systems. Specializing in crafting historically authentic hydrated lime plasters, their materials are used throughout the US and Canada on the restoration of Historic Structures as well as architectural finishes in Residential and Commercial projects. With an emphasis on quality materials, her work focuses on promoting the craft and trade of the plasterer as well as providing education on proper application processes for both preservation work and installations in new design/build projects.