On this week’s episode we spoke with Aubern Mason, an artist who has dedicated her career to historically accurate paint replication.  Aubern discussed the intricacies involved in matching colors and styles when painting historic homes and buildings.  

You can find Aubern on Instagram, Facebook,  and Etsy.

If your historic property was damaged in the Newnan, Georgia EF-4 tornado, please contact Aubern to discuss interior restoration opportunities discussed in this episode.

Holidays in Historic Homes

THE HOLIDAYS – A time for religious observance, merriment, revelry, nostalgia, and magic. The customs we see today have their own history and origins, but true to classic “melting pot” traditions, those practices were blended into our current national amalgam of Christmas time. With so many ties to history and deep-rooted heritage, it’s the perfect holiday to relive the best parts of the past. This post is also an amalgam of information on timeless holiday practices, from other great resources and authors; it’s a one-stop-shop for devising your own holiday with an old-time feel. 

Elaborate old-fashioned Christmas. Photo by Timothy Eberly on Unsplash.

 

A History of Christmas Celebrations, Traditions, and Decorations

This Old House reported that in colonial America, Christmas was mostly about religious observation if it was acknowledged at all; most people treated it as just another day, completing work and chores as usual. Tiverton Historical Society added that many religious groups – especially the Puritans – banned revelry or celebrations because they saw these practices as being Pagan. However, other religions such as Anglicans, Roman Catholics, and Lutherans brought Christmas celebrations to Colonial America. At that time, Christmas and all its trappings were designed more for adults than for children. Concepts like the 12 days of Christmas (from Dec 25 – Jan 6) were represented with balls, parties, and other celebratory events. Some religions held religious services honoring Christmas and its spiritual meaning, and religious carols were sung in and out of church. Foods were similar to what we have today, including hams, roasts, turkeys, pies and other desserts. Gift giving was infrequent, and usually bestowed upon employees or dependents by superiors. Early decorations generally consisted of available vegetation, such as holly, ivy, laurel, mistletoe, and greenery. Although a few historians believe that Hessian soldiers introduced Christmas trees to the colonies during the Revolutionary War, most scholars contend that German immigrants to Eastern Pennsylvania did so. The Norfolk Towne Assembly noted that the German Moravians did introduce creches (nativity scenes) in the 1740’s; putzes (little village scenes) also appeared in the late 18th century. Colonies like Pennsylvania and Delaware in particular were a hotbed for a variety of Christmas celebrations, traditions, and decorations due to religious pluralism. As we’ve discussed before with Susan Dippre, Colonial Williamsburg’s decorations – that many associate with a Colonial Christmas – aren’t historically accurate to colonial times, but a result of tourists’ interests and an attempt by staff to pay homage to Colonial materials and art with a modern (albeit 1930s) decorative sensibility.

Penne Restad discussed the significant growth and change of Christmas traditions throughout the 19th century. By 1800, many disparate traditions for celebrating Christmas existed throughout America, but trends throughout the  19th century ensured a fusion of these into the collective we know today as Christmas. Particularly, by mid-century, exponential change via technology, industrialization, and urbanization caused greater socioeconomical inequality, unrest, and tension, even as it increased connections between people with transportation and communication innovations. The populace consequently experienced a shared desire for “old” familiar comforts and values and a greater need for solidarity. These yearnings were manifest in various Christmas traditions that transcended religious and cultural differences, and enabled Christmas to act as a unifying American holiday. German influences were more prevalent in Christmas celebrations (including things mentioned during the Colonial period), but in the 19th century this was most evident in the Christmas tree. Christmas trees exploded in popularity by the 1850s, when town squares even began selling them. Early trees were decorated with religiously symbolic items or gifts which often included fruits, nuts, and candies. Ornament materials were initially natural and homespun. By the 1870s, ornaments for trees were so popular that manufacturers – especially in Germany – created more sophisticated, ornate pieces often made of colored glass. These pieces became a big business during this decade in department stores. The Woolworth’s Store here in Lancaster would have had these wares on offer. Gift-giving became more prominent in the 1820s, but by the 1870s and 80s, it exploded – both due to increased consumerism and because it served as a means for the privileged to attempt to appease the less fortunate (as well as their own consciences a la Ebenezer Scrooge) through charitable giving. Santa Claus – the ultimate gift-giver – was a major part of Christmas tradition for early Dutch settlers, but was solidified in the American popular imagination by Clement C. Moore. He penned “A Visit from St. Nicholas” in 1822 to entertain his children, and this became what we now know as “The Night Before Christmas.” Several other artists and authors had already expanded on this saint prior to this piece, and continued to do so after. One of the most famous portrayals was that of  Thomas Nast, posted in the January 3, 1863 edition of Harper’s Weekly.  The English tradition of Christmas cards also appeared more broadly in America in the 1850s, and the tradition really took off when Louis Prang began manufacturing these miniature pieces of art; they fulfilled consumers’ sentiments, but also acted as appropriate substitutes for letters, in-person visits, as well as more traditional gifts. By the end of the 19th century, Christmas was very much like we know it today – including its ironically heavy ties to consumerism and capitalism, despite its purer origins. 

Many of the trends of the late 19th century continued into the 20th, with increased commercialism, as noted by Bygone Theatre. By the 1910s, Santa looked pretty much as we visualize him today, and Coca Cola solidified this in 1931 with their artistic rendering. Glass ornaments were being made in America in addition to Germany after WWI. By the 1920s, well-off consumers were popularizing use of electric lights for trees. Things were generally simpler again during the depression, although WWII afforded a bit more prosperity with practicality – shiny brites came about at this time (but gifts were focused on war efforts). In the post-war boom, styles became more “gaudy” and lots of babies meant a booming toy industry, and many toys made popular Christmas gifts. Relatedly, many child-focused TV Christmas specials were born. The 1960s continued many of the characteristics of the 1950s Christmas with more variety – think bright pastels, more tinsel, and unique décor. Hallmark yearly ornaments originated in the 1970s, and the 80s and 90s reflected the trends of the previous 20-30 years with increases in technology that allowed for more frequent viewing of classic TV Christmas specials, and more artists creating Christmas albums.

In the past 20 years, people have leaned toward family photo Christmas cards, Hallmark Christmas movies, and “ugly sweater” parties – a new nostalgia for Christmas fashion from the 80s and 90s. However, the darker side of this time has included exceptional consumerism, to the point of injury and death, with corporations capitalizing on people’s gift desires via Black Friday and other limited-time sales. As a result, the holidays have become, for many, one of the most stressful times of the year. It’s left many people longing for simpler times. Pandemic restrictions, and related economic depression and stress will likely mitigate some of these trends, hopefully encouraging people to focus on more meaningful things than what they “need” to buy. Read on for old-fashioned Christmas inspiration to soothe your modern stress.

 

Observing an old-fashioned Christmas

Creating your old-fashioned Christmas.

  • Activities and traditions – Many of our modern activities and traditions stem from old traditions, so if you’re already doing them, keep doing them! However, if you need more inspiration, check out posts here, here, here, and here. Check out specific food traditions and ghost story-telling, too (here and here). 
  • Preservation and protection – Rule #1 is DON’T DAMAGE YOUR HISTORIC FABRIC!
    • Consider hanging decorations without making new nail holes (use existing holes, picture rails, and try to distribute weight of items across several nails). You can also take advantage of over the door or window hangers or ribbons for items like wreaths. If there is room, a hanger over your front door is suitable if it does not scrape at the door and door frame. Double-hung windows accommodate fabric ribbons pinched between the sashes. You may even use weights to hold garlands in place. Use utility hooks like command strips with caution and at your own discretion, as these may still damage walls (or the item you’re hanging on them if they lose adhesion and fall).
    • Be careful what decorative materials you use – tape, glitter, and faux snow can all be damaging to finishes, or even cut soft surfaces in the case of glitter.
    • Live plants may be best relegated to the outdoors to prevent insect and moisture damage to your interiors. If you do have live decorative plants indoors, keep them distanced from artwork, carpets, and upholstery. Also keep a barrier between container plants and your furniture like a saucer. You may also use Volara Foam – archival quality material that Biltmore Estate uses for its decorations.
  • DIY Decorations – Decorate based on the time-period or cultural origins of your home (or those that you would like to emulate).
    • Colonial Era – remember to keep things simple. If you would like to deviate from austere historical accuracy, consider following the example of Colonial Williamsburg, or other home owners here and here. For Moravian/German ideas, look at Historic Bethlehem
    • 19th Century – as aforementioned this time period runs the gamut of style, depending on what decade you’re interpreting. Choose one specific style, or meld them together. Biltmore Estate and the Merchant’s House Museum are just two examples from which you may take inspiration in-person on virtually. 
    • 20th Century – Basic traditions were maintained, but the aesthetic changed significantly in the course of 100 years. The early years were similar to the late 19th century, but things really began to evolve mid-century. Old house guy talks about a 1940s Christmas tree. Mid-century Modern ideas can also be found here, here, and here.
    • General – find inspiration for more primary resources from This Old House, at the bottom of the post.

 

For further resources and reading: 

  • Refer to the resources linked throughout this post for time-period-specific information. You can also find more history here, here and here.
  • More sites to visit in-person and virtually can be found here and here.

 

UNIQUE HISTORICAL FEATURES SERIES – On this 4th Tuesday of the month, our focus isn’t on a specific feature per se, but more on a combination of features; a whole architectural style, in fact. And we’re focusing on how mutable cultural values created and then reviled that style, resulting in its being the focus of nightmares in popular culture. To honor Halloween season in a preservation-minded way, instead of covering traditional hauntings, we will examine how the aforementioned phenomena collectively created our modern vision of what is “creepy.” This month’s feature is: “HAUNTED” VICTORIAN HOUSES. 

Prototypical image of a “haunted” Victorian house. Photo by Matthew T Rader on Unsplash.

 

Why are “haunted houses” usually Victorian in style?

Many authors (here, here, here and here, to name a few) have pondered and analyzed this question. Sarah Burns (2012) summarized it best in her article “Better for Haunts”: Victorian Houses and the Modern Imagination, querying: 

“If we consider the Victorian house in its own time and place…there is nothing ominous about the mansard-roofed house…Half a century later, however, that very same style had become a signifier of terror, death, and decay. How, when, and why did the ghosts take over?”  (p. 3)

 

The answer comes down to what Burns refers to as a “shifting context” (p. 3), where architectural changes coincide with and are influenced by cultural and social reforms. There are many reasons for these shifts.

People deem all kinds of trends – from fashion, to food, to entertaining, and even to architecture – to be out-of-date or out-of-touch after a time. Many people naturally rebel against what their parents’ generation considered en vogue. The generations after the Victorians were no exception. The fact that the height of Victorian homes’ popularity coincided with the old tradition of laying out the dead in the family parlor (prior to the advent of the funeral parlor) did not help their image and may have added to the “creepy” mystique as trends moved away from wakes at home. These small scale reasons contributed to aesthetic preferences shifting away from Victorian style.

On a greater scale, aesthetics were influenced by social reform and philosophical ideals. The Victorian era – especially the latter-half – was a time of great economic (and other) disparity. Traditional Victorian homes visually represented this disparity with ostentatious displays of wealth, frequently characterized by conspicuous consumption by the nouveau riche. Heavy ornamentation and detail indicative of most Victorian styles – inside and out- represented the wealth of a small portion of the population. Some of this ornamentation was also made possible due to the second Industrial Revolution (itself a partial cause and manifestation of wealth disparity). Mass production enabled cheaper, quicker access to materials. But this also meant the wealthy became wealthier, the middle class became wealthier, and the poor stayed poor. In fact, the increase in urbanization made for overcrowded, unhealthy living conditions for the poor (who made up the greatest number of factory workers). They were also practically chained to their factory jobs and seen as inhuman machines by their employers.

Social reforms, including the arts and crafts movement and the labor movement, gained ground in government but also influenced architectural design. Many reformers (arts and crafts movement) saw industrialization as an undesirable replacement for craftsmanship as well as a social problem, and advocated craftsman style in architecture in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Home interiors were not immune to the changes, as the sanitary or hygiene reform movement also impacted design, especially in the bathroom; wood and heavy fabrics were seen not only as outdated but also unsanitary. These architectural style changes became an expression of political, economic, and social values in addition to quality materials and workmanship. Architecturally, craftsman styles flourished through the 1920s. By the 1930s and 1940s, modernism and colonial revival styles took hold, continuing to move away from Victorian style.

For all of the above reasons, Victorian homes fell out of favor, and people moved away from the old neighborhoods, leaving Victorian homes to be broken into apartments, turned into boarding houses, or derelict looming figures thanks to demolition by neglect, their once grand neighborhoods dilapidated and run-down. This likely furthered the view that these homes were “haunted” or “creepy.” This status was perfect creative fodder for authors and artists, who subsequently demonized these types of homes. As entertainment technology evolved, movies and TV shows followed suit (e.g., The Addams Family, The Munsters, and Psycho) further solidifying a negative view of these homes in the popular imagination.

The conglomeration of influences cemented Victorian homes as the style of haunted house for generations to come. The issue is that by doing this, in some cases, it has damaged the reputation of these houses leading to improper care for them, or even destruction of them. Luckily, enough of the population cares for these homes to have saved many of them, and we can see examples of Victorian architecture in nearly every town and city in the United States today. 

Letting Victorian homes wither away or even demolishing them due to misplaced fear is much scarier than actually saving and preserving these historic treasures. Anything that is dilapidated and not maintained will look creepy!

 

Examples of “haunted” Victorian architecture:

 

Gothic Revival architectural style seen in the caretaker’s home at Woodward Hill Cemetery (burial site of President James Buchanan) in Lancaster, PA. The gravestones seen in the foreground add to the foreboding ambience. Build date unknown. 

 

 

 

 

Photo above courtesy of Laura Kise.

 

Another Gothic Revival building at Woodward Hill Cemetery in Lancaster, PA. Build date unknown.

 

 

 

 

 

Photo above courtesy of Laura Kise.

 

View of the Winchester Mystery House in San Jose, California. Primarily identified with Queen Anne architectural style, this now-infamous home that began as a simple farmhouse was renovated and added onto by Sarah Winchester (widow of William Winchester) from 1886 to 1922 in an effort to protect herself from vengeful spirits. Purported to actually be haunted, the architectural design elements as well as Sarah’s purposeful twists, turns, and “booby-traps” make for a creepy home inside and out, despite its obvious beauty.

The image above was taken by Liz Jandoli, for Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS), date unknown. Image source: Library of Congress.

 

The Biltmore Estate – home to the Vanderbilts and America’s largest home – in Asheville, North Carolina, is constructed in the Châteauesque architectural style, and was built between 1889-1895. This home is also rumored to be actually haunted, but anyone might feel intimidated by this imposing, gorgeous structure.

 

 

 

The image above was taken by Frances Benjamin Johnston for the Library of Congress, in 1938. Image source: Library of Congress.

 

Victorian Architecture Today

 

Where to see it. 

  • Scavenger hunt – Hit the pavement in most towns and see how many Victorian houses you can find; despite the negative connotations over the years, we are lucky to have many fine examples of Victorian homes throughout the United States. 
  • (Virtual) museum and other tours – Check out historical house museums – if you’re lucky enough to find an open museum right now following CDC guidelines, visit in-person. Otherwise, see if their website has a virtual tour. Biltmore Estate can be toured virtually at the bottom of this page. You can virtually visit the Winchester Mystery House here. You may also choose to visit a purportedly haunted house (assuming you feel safe during this time of COVID) and given the time of year, there are many options as we get closer to Halloween.
  • Photo gallery – View Victorian architecture images on flickr or explore sites like Library of Congress. 

Get (or protect) your own.

  • Real estate – There are many ways to find your own Victorian, and by doing so, you can help save these treasures and contribute to a more positive view of these historic structures. The National Trust for Historic Preservation has archives of real estate agents who specialize in historic properties, here. They also include listings of properties for sale, here. You can also peruse independent sites such as Circa Houses and Cheap Old Houses
  • Protecting, preserving, and maintaining – Not maintaining your historical home will guarantee that it looks creepy, so maintain your home so you don’t contribute to the negative mystique! Visit the many resources on our website (or contact us for help), and view our Fall Maintenance post, here. Visit The National Trust for Historic Preservation, as well as The National Park Service for more information on protecting and preserving your historic home. 

 

For further resources and reading:

  • You can read Sarah Burns’ thorough analysis of the “haunted” mystique of Victorian homes – and JSTOR is currently offering free access if you create a login – here.

 

Stay tuned each month for a new installment in this UNIQUE HISTORICAL FEATURES SERIES! See last month’s post on Butler’s Pantries.

 

SHARE WITH US!

DO YOU OWN A VICTORIAN HOME? DOES IT HAVE A REPUTATION FOR BEING CREEPY OR HAUNTED? OR, IS THERE A VICTORIAN HOME THAT YOU DON’T OWN BUT LOVE?

FEEL FREE TO SHARE BELOW!

 

 

 

 

Rabbit Goody, owner, designer, and master weaver of Thistle Hill Weavers, joined the Practical Preservation podcast to discuss information about her background in weaving, and museum curation and consultation. We covered a multitude of topics including:

  • Rabbit’s interwoven skill-sets and background, starting with her intuitive skills as a teen-aged weaver, and her academic backgrounds in anthropology and museum curation and consultation
  • The inception of Thistle Hill Weavers, including saving discarded weaving machines from old mills
  • Products and services, ranging from interior fabrics for architectural firms to clothing fabric for sustainable clothing designers, as well as personal projects for private homeowners
  • The process involved in commissioning fabrics from Thistle Hill Weavers
  • Notable projects, from interior fabrics in the homes of deceased presidents to historically-accurate fabric in movies 
  • Tips for homeowners to follow their own style with interior design

 

Contact/Follow:

Phone – toll free (866) 384-2729

Emailwebsite contact form 

Website

Facebook

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From the online shop, Rabbit recommends: Window treatment book, on sale (here), or the fabric sample pack, which includes 3 samples of every type of fabric (here). 

 

A façade. What is it? Most of us know that its most basic definition is “face.” In the case of architecture, this refers to the exterior side of the building, usually the front. Façades on buildings are often the first defining features we see. As times change, so do architectural design styles, and this is reflected in façades on old and new buildings. Façades can provide varying amounts of information about the building’s past and current functioning, or they can simply be really nice to look at. Regardless, they are often the one aspect of architecture that almost anyone has access to simply by being in front of us. Read on to learn why historical façades are more than aesthetics.


Exterior shot of the Kosciuszko House, from our archives.

 

IMPORTANCE OF FACADES

You may be thinking to yourself: Why is a façade important? Isn’t it just for aesthetic-purposes? The answer is: Yes, it is partially focused on aesthetics. And one person’s visually-pleasing cup-of-tea is not someone else’s, so not every façade is attractive to every eye. However, a façade serves many more purposes and provides many other benefits than simply fulfilling an aesthetic goal.

  • Historical Streetscape and Cultural Landscape. The front façade of your home is an important focal point not only for curb appeal, but for the entire community. The rhythm of the entire streetscape is set by the street-facing façade. A well-preserved façade helps to maintain the historic fabric and cultural landscape of the building and the area around it, further contributing to the identity of its environment and community. The National Trust for Historic Preservation and Mainstreet America provide further information on the impetus to save and preserve façades in keeping with these community and cultural concepts.

 

  • Visual Historical Records. Even things that were considered merely decorative at the time of their construction may currently serve a function as a visual replacement for a historic plaque, by virtue of their historically-defining characteristics. Essentially, period-appropriate façades that are preserved are visual clues to the time period of the building, enabling us to visually “read” some aspects of a building’s history.  We can discern the time period of the building based on the style, as well as time periods of later additions. Style also indicates the socioeconomic status of the builder/original owner.

 

  • Form and Function. A preserved or period-appropriate façade also may include functional aspects. Although the nature of design has clearly evolved, we know that form and function often go hand-in-hand in older buildings and this often rings true even on a façade. The ingenious marriage of form and function in their designs often lend to the “charm” that modern people associate with them, and that is typically missing from newer buildings. For instance, historical shutters most-definitely served a function as much as they added to the decoration of a home. Their functions included protecting occupants from prying eyes or intrusion,  weather protection, as well as UV protection of items inside the home, including wooden furniture. They might also provide a breeze to come through without having the window gaping open, and in some cases were substitutes for glass windows. Porches also served dual functions, providing a grand decorative entrance to the home, while also allowing for outdoor socialization (as well as alternative sleeping accommodations in the case of sleeping porches). Other façade design elements can also be functional in many ways. 

 

ISSUES AND CONTROVERSIES

Contractors, building owners, city planning committees, and the public do not always agree on how façades or their buildings should be built, preserved, or maintained, leading to a variety of outcomes and controversies.

  • Façade lost or destroyed. In some cases, an old home or building’s façade is modified, rendering it unrecognizable from its original configuration, and important historical elements are forgotten or lost. Some of the aspects most-threatened by these facelifts include original windows and doors, due to homeowners’ concerns about energy efficiency, cost, and maintenance, and the highly-advertised “maintenance-free” trap

 

  • Façade preserved but interior lost or destroyed. In other cases and as is more common, the façade is preserved while the interior is not. The Secretary of the Interiors’ guidelines for Historic Preservation focuses on the preservation of exterior features (the façade) by allowing historic commissions/HARB districts to regulate changes to buildings within the designated districts to what is visible from the public street (“streetscape” is the term that is used).  The interior is not regulated even in historic districts – leading to gutting of interiors while the exteriors are preserved.  I think this is because the historic preservation policy is based off of community preservation (“rhythms and patterns” is the term that is used) balanced with property owners’ rights – which is still a tension in regulated neighborhoods.  Easements are the only preservation tool that can preserve the interior (if stipulated in the agreement). We will discuss more of this in an upcoming blog post on interiors.

 

  • Façadism. This term refers to an even more extreme example than the one above. Simply put, façadism is when the façade is preserved but the building behind is completely lost or destroyed, and replaced by a completely new building. This is often seen in the case of adaptive reuse. This obviously is a controversial topic in the field of preservation, and some believe it should not be associated with true historic preservation. Locally here in Lancaster, the preservation victory of preserving the Watt and Shand Department Store façade in downtown Lancaster for the Marriott Hotel and Convention Center has been controversial, but I’d rather see the façade preserved than lost.

 

  • Façade and interior restored or preserved. In some cases, façades and interiors are beautifully restored and saved. See this post on an example of one of our complete exterior and interior restorations from several years ago. Another unique local example is also part of the Marriott complex. The Montgomery house’s exterior was preserved as the convention center was built around and incorporated the home into it, and the interior of the house was renovated to meet modern needs, making this a more thorough example of restoration incorporated into adaptive reuse. 

 

FAÇADE PRESERVATION TIPS

There are several things you can do to preserve or restore your historical façade, and we’ve included a breakdown of each of the most common elements of your home’s façade, as well as comprehensive information on overall maintenance and aesthetic/architectural style elements.

  • Entrances (porches and doors). The entrance to a home is one of the most attention-grabbing aspects of a façade. Visit our previous post on porches and doors for more information on restoring or updating your entrance. You can also visit our porch archives.

 

  • Windows and Shutters. Windows are another key component of a façade, and we’ve discussed many times the importance of maintenance or restoration of old windows vs. falling for the “maintenance-free” new window trap that is heavily touted by modern manufacturing companies and many contractors. Visit the National Park Service’s (NPS) site on windows, and NPS’s National Center for Preservation Technology and Training’s website on windows, and our window archives for more information on approaching your historical windows.

 

  • Siding and Paint. Siding can be just as vulnerable as windows are to replacement with inappropriate modern materials. Paint poses its own challenges in terms of safety (lead in old paint) but also benefits of historically-accurate (minus the lead) paints and paint colors. Visit NPS’s briefs on exterior paint issues and substitute materials, as well as our articles on siding and painting your historical home

 

  • Roofs and Chimneys. Roofs and chimneys can be essential elements of a home’s design and are distinctively different across architectural styles. Visit the NPS’s preservation briefs on roofing and mortar, as well as The Trust for Architectural Easement’s piece on historic masonry chimneys. The Wisconsin Historical Society also has a piece on Preserving Original Roof Features of your Historic Building

 

  • Gutters. Although these utilitarian features are often overlooked when one thinks of more common aesthetic and functional features of a building’s façade, they are no less essential. The Trust for Architectural Easements discusses preservation of gutters and downspouts, and we’ve discussed gutters in our archives

 

  • Additions. Additions to homes, especially ones visible from the front of the home, are another important thing to consider when attempting to preserve most historical aspects of a façade. Visit NPS’s brief on exterior additions and Sheldon Richard Kostelecky’s article regarding sympathetic additions. 

 

  • Architectural character. Character is a major aspect of streetscapes and the cultural landscape, as well as period-appropriate architectural design style. Visit NPS’s brief on architectural character and our archives on architectural design.  

 

  • Overall maintenance. Visit our maintenance archives, including many recent and up-to-date articles on maintaining your home’s exterior. 

IN SUMMARY:

There’s more to a façade than meets the eye. If you would like help preserving or restoring your home’s  façade beyond the resources presented throughout this article, feel free to contact us to discuss your options.